Guggenheim museumIntroductionFounded in 1937, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum is a modern art museum on Upper East Side in Manhattan, New York. It is the most famous one of several art galleries held under the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and is often referred to as Guggenheim, one of New York City’s most famous museum. Originally known as The Museum of Non-Objective Painting, Guggenheim has shown avant-garde artwork by many early modernist artists such as Kandinsky and Peter Mondrian. In 1943, Frank Lloyd Wright, the famous architect, received the invitation from Guggenheim, founder of the Guggenheim Foundation to design this gallery. By 1944, Wright had proposed a concrete plan for the construction of the museum, Just after the end of World War II and the passing away of Mr. Guggenheim, the project was delayed until 1956 when Wright completed the current design and Wright died in April of the same year ,In October of the same year, Guggenheim moved to its present location at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and 89th Street, which is Central Park. Structure of the museumThe whole space is divided into two volumes, the big one is the showroom, 6 levels” the small one is the administrative office section, 4 layers. The exhibition hall is an upside-down, spiral-shaped space about 30 meters high. The top of the hall is a petal-shaped glass ceiling surrounded by spiraling layers of grass. The ground slowly rises at a gradient of 3%. Visitors first take the elevator to the top, then down the slope, a total of 430 meters to visit the route. Museum of art exhibits hanging along the walls of the ramp, the audience walking to enjoy, unconsciously walked over a 6-storey ramp, read the exhibits, which is obviously more than the kind of conventional set of a The exhibition room is much more fun and relaxing. Architect Wright has been looking for years to embrace a space with a three-dimensional, spiral-shaped structure rather than a circular, planar structure that allows one to truly experience the movement in space. He believes that when people walk along the spiral ramp, the surrounding space is continuous, gradual, not fragmented, folded. For this perspective, he designed a spiral store in San Francisco and a spiral garage in Pittsburgh, again convincing the owners that he believes the spiral is the finest form of art galleries. In 1986, the Guggenheim Museum of Art won the American Institute of Architects 25-year award. Curatorial department of GuggenheimThe Guggenheim’s curatorial department engages in innovative research and exchange initiatives that foster new perspectives on modern and contemporary art and expand its collegial networks beyond the museum’s immediate community. As part of its multi-year curatorial research projects, the museum convenes artists and scholars from around the world and across disciplines to deepen internal expertise in relevant fields of cultural inquiry. Curators travel widely, connecting with individuals, institutions, and archives to develop their focus of research and promote cultural exchange programs including touring exhibitions. These research activities contribute significantly to the museum’s exhibition, acquisition and publication programs.Collection: Acquisitions and DonationsDifferent from the collections inherited by the state museums, as well as the incremental expectation of the relocation of cultural relics, the Guggenheim Museum Foundation, as a private institution, does not have a solid historical basis and institutional guarantee. Apart from its own acquisition accumulation, the Guggenheim Museum Foundation can only rely on Personal donation and hosting. In fact, Guggenheim’s long-term fixed exhibition collection mainly comes from nine individual collectors, and the reason is mainly based on recognition and trust of the foundation, which requires the foundation must be well managed and transparent operation.Funds raiseThe significant success of the Guggenheim Museum Foundation lies in its independent funding structure, which means that over 60% and even over 70% of the capital income can be realized through its own museum operations, including tickets, tours, royalties, peripheral products and Services revenue generated, of which ticket sales revenue was stable, patrol exhibition fees and royalties revenue accounted for the largest and significant growth, fully demonstrated the Guggenheim Foundation good economic returns, strong operational capacity and positive development expectations, and Not overly dependent on external financial support. Foundation administrative structure and operation modeThe Guggenheim Museum Foundation implements a three-tier governance structure at the leadership and executive levels and at the museum level, which has better-centralized control and higher autonomy.the chairman, president, vice president and a large number of directors, financial officer, secretary, consist of top management committee which is mainly responsible for strategic decision-making and financial control.At the middle level is the Foundation Executive committee which consists of a director and nine deputy directors in charge of different works. It is the management of the Foundation that really holds power. It also includes the Guggenheim Museum of Venice and Bilbao Guggenheim Museum of the person in charge.At the base level are the Guggenheim Museum Branches which are responsible for specific daily museum operations and have greater autonomy in their own affairs The ex- director of Guggenheim museum :Thomas KrensWhen people talk about the Guggenheim Museum, they must mention a person, Thomas Krens, used to be the former director of the Solomon. R Guggenheim Foundation, who is a very controversial person. Some critics have criticized that Thomas Krens a pure businessman who has nothing to do with art. What he did was to turn the Guggenheim Museum into a commercial company from a well-known art institution, even selling brands worldwide, which would definitely damage the image of the museum. While some people admire him praising him as a commercial genius, he found a new business model for the development of the museum. But no matter what happens, he is a figure cannot be ignored in Guggenheim museum’s history.Guggenheim, he ambitiously made a lot of efforts on commercialization of the brand and global expansion strategy, and he was dedicated to extending the Guggenheim brand to all parts of the world. Several museums throughout the world had joined Guggenheim during the ten tenure and use the brand “Guggenheim”, including the three major overseas branches outside the United States, Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, Spain, the Peggy Guggenheim Museum, and the Abu Dhabi Guggenheim Museum which is Still under construction.On the other hand, Thomas krens allowed other organization or institution to join the Guggenheim Museum just like a fast food branches, and on many public occasions he wanted people just need to pay only $ 100 million, then they can be one of member in Guggenheim And also the Solomon R foundation would arrange some art Architect to design the new building, meanwhile, they will train new museum staffs at its headquarter in the US. The most attractive things as a member Guggenheim is all the collection can be shared from one to another. Guggenheim museum oversea branches and its international strategy Guggenheim Museum Foundation has always insisted on the international strategy of overseas expansion and has been exploring Europe and the United States, to expand its overseas branches in a variety of ways. Currently, Guggenheim Foundation has four major member museums, namely the main museum on Fifth Avenue in New York, USA – the Solomon Guggenheim Museum, the Peggy Guggenheim Museum in Venice, Italy, Guggenheim Bilbao in the small town where is in northern Spain, and the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi under construction in the UAE. These famous members of the Guggenheim Museum together build a vast territory of the Guggenheim Museum EmpireGuggenheim museum, through its expanding network of constellations of art-viewing space, each component shines with its unique radiance, thus reflecting Guggenheim’s commitment to global public utilities while emphasizing the combination of education, art, and architecture. Overall, these spaces allow the Foundation to realize the art of collecting the highest quality possible and face the tasks and goals of the broadest audience of the art scene. Guggenheim’s commitment to international projects reflects its history, its tradition, its breadth of collections and Its contribution to a culture of excellence. The Great case : Guggenheim museum Bilbao The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao was officially opened in October 1997 and is part of an overall urban renewal project in the industrial city of Bilbao. With a total area of 24,000 square meters, the museum uses 11,000 square meters of space for artwork display and is divided into 19 showrooms, one of which is also home to one of the largest galleries in the world. This modern cultural site is a huge magnet for visitors to Bilbao. The museum revitalized the local economy (as a result, the net worth of industrial products in the Basque Country soared more than fivefold) and created an opportunity for the city to revive.The completion of the Guggenheim Museum has greatly enhanced the cultural quality of the city of Bilbao, making it quickly become Europe’s most prestigious architectural shrine and art palace, for a time crowded, tourists, weakened by the European cultural community as a must Bow event every event.In just six years, the funds for the start-up project have been fully recovered, bringing the region € 150 million in revenue. In addition, the modern art museum has created 45,000 jobs. Museum visitors increased year by year, soon exceeded the number of visitors to millions of people, direct ticket sales accounted for 4% of the city’s revenue, driven by related industries income accounted for more than 20%. Nowadays, the benefits to the local economy from the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao have become the subject of numerous university studies, which Harvard calls the “Guggenheim Effect”3It must be pointed out that the Guggenheim Museum Foundation is definitely not always successful in terms of expansion. the Guggenheim Museum located in the Las Vegas ceased its operation, Deutsche Bank in Berlin, Germany, The museum will no longer be closed and plans to build the Guggenheim Museum in Lithuania and Finland will eventually stop.