HD by Dominique Naef of the Geneva

HD 80606 b is an exoplanetdiscovered in 2001 by a team led by Dominique Naef of the Geneva Observatory inSwitzerland.

HD 80606 b is around 190.4 lightyears away from Earth and is thought to be around 7.6 billion years old.

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This planet is known for itsstrange elongated orbit around its host star, similar to the orbit of a comet,with distances from its star ranging from 79 million miles and only 2.8 millionmiles. This orbit around HD 80606 (a sun-like star) lasts around 111 days. Duringthis extreme orbit, the planet experiences significant weather changes. HD80606 b’s host star, HD 80606, is joined in space to a similar star called HD80607.Kapteyn b is an extrasolar planetthat orbits a red dwarf star named Kapteyn at a distance of around 0.17 AU. Itwas discovered in 2014 at the European Southern Observatory in Chile.

This planet is locatedapproximately 12.8 light years away from Earth, and it is approximately 11.5billion years old.Kapteyn b is known as one of thefirst discovered potentially habitable planets. The solar system it is in,orbiting Kapteyn’s star, also contains another planet called Kapteyn c, butthis planet is considered to be too cold to sustain life. Kapteyn b orbits theKapteyn’s star every 48.

6 days, and it is inside the habitable zone of thissolar system. Depending on the atmosphere of the planet, it may be able tosustain water and it is thought by scientists to have a rocky surface.Messier 31, also known as theAndromeda Galaxy is a spiral galaxy located in the constellation Andromeda. Itwas once known as the Great Andromeda Nebula.

It was first seen a very longtime ago, but confirmed with technology in the 1900’s.This galaxy is locatedapproximately 2.54 million light years away from Earth and thought to be formed10 billion years ago.The Andromeda Galaxy is the closestGalaxy to ours and can be observed from Earth at night by the naked eye.

It isa huge galaxy, presumably containing many black holes and over a trillionstars. Interestingly, scientists estimate that Andromeda is possible to collidewith the Milky Way Galaxy in 4.5 billion years, and perhaps form a new galaxy together.8 billion years ago, the Antromeda Galaxy experienced a similar collision inorder to form the galaxy it is today.The Cartwheel Galaxy is a deepspace or deep sky galaxy discovered in 1941 by Fritz Zwicky. It is located inthe constellation Sculptor, and it is named the “Cartwheel Galaxy” because itlooks similar to a wagon wheel. The Cartwheel Galaxy is located around500 million light years from our solar system.

Its age is not exactly known butit is thought to have formed its current shape 200 million years ago.This Galaxy is slightly largerthan ours, with a span of 150,000 light-years. It is thought to rotate at aspeed of around 217 km per second. Around 200 million years ago, it collidedwith another galaxy, causing it to form an abnormal shape. Previous to thiscollision, the galaxy was formed in an ordinary spiral. It is thought to beslowly retaking the form of a spiral galaxy.

Messier 64, also known as TheBlack Eye Galaxy  was discovered in 1779by Edward Pigott. It is located in the constellation Coma Berenices and has adiameter of approximately 56 thousand light-years.The Black Eye Galaxy is locatedaround 17 million light-years from EarthThis spiral galaxy is known forits strange motion, looking as though some objects/gasses in the galaxy aremoving in opposite directions. This strange motion is thought to possibly havebeen caused by a previous collision with another galaxy. This galaxy has athird name, “Sleeping Beauty Galaxy” because of how the dust in the galaxyseems to hide the stars.

This dust also appears as a dark band in the galaxy,coining the name “black eye” galaxy.                Asastronomers have pieced together an abundance of information about objects inour solar system, in our universe and outside our universe. The objectsdescribed, including 243 Ida in our solar system, HD 80606 b outside of oursolar system and Messier 31, a galaxy outside of our own, have lead to futureastronomical discoveries. However, there is still an unlimited amount ofinformation left to identify, as past theories and sightings point to newdiscoveries.