Federal Republic of Germany is consisted of sixteen states, the so-called Bundesländer or Länder.
Germany has one of the highest population densities within the European Union.
The physician proposition in the population is around
3.4 per 1,000 inhabitants. Germany has one of the best and quality based
health care services in world. It has the highly decentralized and
self-governing system run by different players. German statutory health system
is recognized as one of the prototypes of modern health system configurations.
Since its introduction in 1883 by the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the
guiding principle of the German health system has been solidarity among the
insured. Solidarity manifests itself both on the income side and the provision
side of statutory health insurance: all insured persons, irrespective of health
risk, contribute a percentage of their income, and these contributions entitle
the individuals to benefits according to health needs— irrespective of their
socioeconomic situation, ability to pay, or geographical location. In this
pooled-risk system, people with high income support people with low income,
young people support elderly people, healthy people support people who are
sick, and people without children support people with children. Currently
services offered by the statutory health insurance include promotion of health,
prevention of disease, early diagnosis of disease, treatment of disease, and
right for funeral benefits. The key elements of this social insurance system
are (I) nonprofit sickness funds that insure about 90% of the population and
(2) regional associations of physicians (Kassenarztliche Vereinigung) that
provide patient care for fees negotiated with the sickness funds.(Simon 2016)
The German health care
system is divided into three main areas: outpatient care, inpatient care (the
hospital sector), and rehabilitation facilities.
Outpatient care: – outpatient
care mainly consists of doctors who having private practices or self-employed,
dentists, physiotherapists and others in their own business. Most doctors and
dentists have a “Kassenzulassung” (statutory health insurance
accreditation), which certify them to treat all people who having statutory
Inpatient care: – In
Inpatient care all the people can be get treated at hospitals whether they are
public or private insured or self-paid. Big public hospitals are either belongs
to state or health ministry. Charity-run hospitals are mainly functioned by
organizations like the Red Cross or religious groups. Private hospitals which are also expanded
widely across country, which are mainly used by private insured people. They are
chain of hospitals spread across country. There are also smaller clinic chains
and also specialized clinics for specialized treatments.
facilities are mainly for people who are seriously treated with intense therapy
or medical conditions and mainly drugs and alcohol addictions, where treatments
are provided to help people to regain independence and improve their
performance. Treatments including physiotherapy, psychological care and help patients
to how to use medical aids and appliances. Patients who come here are mainly after
a hospital stay, for instance following surgery.