Hemp Association Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. ) Cultivation in the Tai’an District of Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China Robert C. Clarke Naturetex International B. V. Van Diemenstraat 192 1013 CP Amsterdam The Netherlands Clarke, R. C. 1995. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. ) Cultivation in the Tai’an District of Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China. Journal of the International Hemp Association 2(2): 57, 60-65. This paper summarizes the history of hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cultivation and traditional use in the Tai’an District of Shandong Province in the People’s Republic of China, and investigates the cultivation and processing techniques currently being employed to produce hemp ribbon and hemp seed. Recent production levels and market conditions are reviewed. Comparisons with Hungarian hemp cultivation and processing, being representative of Western hemp production, are provided where appropriate. Wild types and escaped plants are also described. Dedicated to the advancement of Cannabis, through the dissemination of information December 1995
Journal of the International Hemp Association Vol. 2 No. 2 Introduction Hemp is cultivated for its strong bast fiber throughout many of the numerous fertile inland valleys of Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China. Hemp cultivation in China dates back more than 5,000 years and according to local legend, the peasant farmers of Shandong Province have grown hemp for more than a thousand years. Hemp is produced almost entirely by ancient traditional methods and local hemp farming practices have been influenced very little by modern Western techniques.
However, a modern hemp degumming, spinning, and weaving mill was constructed in the village of Dong Ping in Tai’an District in 1987. In 1993, a Chinese-Dutch joint venture Figure 1. Shandong hemp farmers use traditional methods to grow and process their crop. invested in the hemp mill and began to influence the local cultivation, market structure, and processing of hemp. This article documents the traditional hemp farming practices and current market situation, especially with reference to the sudden and rapid changes brought bout through the influence of Western agricultural advisors, modern cultivation equipment and the introduction of improved hemp varieties. Continued on pg. 60 Shandong cultivation 57 Letters 59 Fiber hemp cultivars 66 Medical Cannabis review 74 New cannabinoid antiemetic 76 Ukranian seed 79 Tasmanian research 82 Interview 86 ICRS symposium 88 Colorado hemp act 92 Canada report 96 Austria report 98 German textiles 101 Book reviews 103 NAIHF 104 Debate Corner 106 Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 58 DEAR MEMBERSHIP
First, we owe our readers and authors an apology for all of the typographic errors and other mistakes apparent in our last issue. Because of editorial staff changes and scheduling pressures, proof-reading of that issue after its preliminary page set-up was sorely inadequate. We hope you will agree that this issue has returned the JIHA to its previous editorial standards. The 1995 VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm Preservation Project was again successful and a preliminary report is presented in this issue. The IHA still owes the Vavilov Research Institute (VIR) of Russia US$ 5,000 for its work with the 1995 Cannabis seed reproductions.
The 1996 project will require about US$ 20,000 and we must have funding organized by early Spring. We are extremely concerned about our ability to finance the VIR project in its fourth and final year. A grant support application for the VIR project has been made, but we are still interested to hear of any other such funding sources. Several of our members have made substantial donations, including: Don Wirtschafter of Ohio Hempery (US$ 500), John Roulac of Hemptech (US$ 250), Dr. J. P. Mathieu of FNPC (US$ 100) and Matthijs T. Huijgen (US$ 100). Generosity such as this, keeps the VIR project alive.
Help us by renewing your membership for 1996 now and encourage your colleagues and libraries to join. We are planning to have our membership list ready in early 1996, so if you want to be included, please renew your membership soon. Remember, you must join at the Sustaining/Business level of US$ 100 to be included in the directory under your business or organization name. We have continued our policy of active participation in both the hemp domain directly and at events that overlap these concerns. Examples of these efforts include the following. –Textile Forum magazine, published by the European Textiles Network, devoted most of their June issue to hemp and derived much of their information from the IHA. If you haven’t seen it, you can order a copy from the IHA bookstore. It’s a beautifully done issue, with nice color plates. —The IHA has been invited to join the FAO hemp/flax network and our journal received a favorable review in the June 1995 issue of its periodical, Euroflax Newsletter. —The first two issues (1994) of the JIHA can now be found on the Internet at . An IHA member was kind enough to set us up on his web site, free of charge.
We hope to establish our own site in 1996. —We will soon be offering a Cannabis Information Kit for educators (see page 108). This was put together by our Projects Manager, Rob Clarke, and is a mixed media resource, including slides and actual examples of hemp products. —The IHA was also pleased to contribute technical advice to the Colorado Industrial Hemp Act strategists on their efforts for 1996. —In 1995, we supplied six varieties of seed, in small amounts, to IHA members for pilot research projects in Australia, Finland, and South Africa.
We are expanding this archive for the 1996 season and hope to supply research quantities of seed for the majority of commercially available hemp varieties from France, Hungary, Poland and Romania. The IHA now has access to a refrigerated room (+3o C) for seed storage. —The IHA appeared at a natural products exhibition held in September in Amsterdam and attracted significant interest, along with several new members. —David Watson, Michael Rich, Xian Feng Jia and Rob Clarke gave a multifaceted presentation to the faculty of Detex Textile College in the Netherlands to help them incorporate hemp into their curriculum. –Rob Clarke presented talks on two topics at the North American Industrial Hemp Forum, one a slide presentation about hemp cultivation strategies in Eastern Europe and China, and a second debate challenging the feasibility of genetically marking industrial hemp varieties (see page 104). The passage of the last four years, and particularly this year, has seen more solid progress in establishing Cannabis as a major crop than the previous forty years combined. Let’s keep up the good work!
Irene Bijl Treasurer Robert Clarke Projects Manager David Pate Secretary David Watson Chairman Hayo van der Werf Editor-in-Chief C O L O F O N The Journal of the International Hemp Association is a bi-annual publication of the International Hemp Association (IHA), Postbus 75007, 1070 AA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel. /fax: +31 20 6188758, e-mail: [email protected] nl ISSN nr 1381-091X. The International Hemp Association is a tax exempt non-profit organization; United States Federal Tax Registry No. 93-1186937. ©1995, International Hemp Association.
All articles accepted for publication by this journal are copyrighted by the IHA, unless the author retains their copyright. The IHA reserves the right to reprint copyrighted articles or to supply them to third parties. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher, the International Hemp Association. The publisher is not responsible for statements and opinions expressed by the authors in this publication.
Although all advertising material is expected to conform to the best ethical standards, inclusion in this publication does not constitute a guarantee or endorsement of the quality or value of such a product or of the claims made of it by its seller. The International Hemp Association is a non-profit organization established in 1992 to promote the beneficial uses of hemp products worldwide. The organization encourages and facilitates the accumulation and exchange of information on Cannabis, sponsors projects in several countries and publishes this journal for its members.
The IHA is supported by memberships and by donations from foundations, corporations and individuals. Although many IHA members may feel that in light of the great economic potential of Cannabis, the current legal restrictions hampering Cannabis research and hemp cultivation should be reconsidered, the IHA does not endorse a political stance on Cannabis legislation, nor will it serve as a forum for the Cannabis legalization debate. Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 59 LETTERS Can THC occur in hemp seed oil ?
To the editors, We have been approached by a firm which exports hemp seed oil from Hungary, who told us that foreign police or customs officials using dogs had stopped one of their consignments as it was suspected of containing THC. They sent us a small sample of the consignment, with the request that we investigate the validity of the suspicion, since literature data indicate that hemp seed oil should not contain THC. Our working hypothesis was that the THC content could only be due to contamination of the oil with the seed tunic [bract]. ) The cannabinoid content of our own samples of 2 year old hemp seed oil was determined. 2) The THC content of 99 % pure Kompolti oil samples containing leaf and tunic debris and, as a control, that of oil from a hemp variety with a high THC content (of the hashish type) were also determined. 3) Determinations were made of the THC content of hemp seed oil from the Kompolti and high THC control varieties, purified to 99. 9 % and further cleaned manually. 4) Finally, the THC content of the sample sent by the firm was determined. Our own hemp seed oil had a THC content of 0. 25 %, which even we did not know. Neither the Kompolti hemp seed oil purified mechanically to 99 %, nor the manually purified oil of Kompolti or of the control variety with high hashish content had a THC content which could be demonstrated chromatographically. The THC content of oil pressed by ourselves mechanically from the variety with high hashish content was 0. 375 %. It should be noted here that, due its extremely low THC content, the THC content of the oil sent by the firm can only be determined by thin-layer chromatography or gas chromatography after special preparation.
Since hemp seed oil and oils prepared from seeds not cleaned of leaf debris and tunics were found to have a cannabinoid content demonstrable by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography (CBD was also identified), while oil prepared from seeds purified from the tepal (tunic) had none, it can be concluded that this cannabinoid content entered the oil in the course of the technological process of oil manufacturing. It can only originate from tunic and leaf debris. Consequently, hemp seed oil should only be pressed from seeds of eating quality, i. e. of at least 99. % purity, in which case there can be no possible occurrence of THC in the oil. It should be noted that even the 0. 375 % THC content found in the variety with the highest THC content is completely innocuous, while that of oil pressed from purified and unpurified seeds of the other varieties was entirely negligible. Dr. Peter Mathe Dr. Ivan Bocsa G. A. T. E. Rudolph Fleischmann Research Institute, 4 Fleischmann Utca, Kompolt 3600, Hungary Membership The IHA has three types of membership: Student (US $25/NLG 40 per year), Individual (US $50/NLG 80 per year) and Sustaining/Business (US $100/NLG 160 or more! er year). In order to be listed by your business name you must join at the Sustaining/Business level. Members may order additional or previous issues for US $10 (postpaid), non-members pay US $ 15 (postpaid). Members joining after June may join for the next year and purchase the issues of the current year. Payments may be made by International Postal Money Order, American Express/Thomas Cook Money Order, or via AmEx credit card. Authors who contribute an accepted article to the journal will receive a year’s membership, including a subscription to this journal.
Sustaining members can direct their contribution toward any specific project they prefer. A financial audit of income and expenditures is available to sustaining members. Submission of manuscripts The IHA Journal publishes original research, literature reviews and news items on hemp. Preferably, contributions should not exceed 10 double-spaced typed pages (ca. 4000 words). Longer contributions may be accepted if they can be serialized in two consecutive issues. Manuscripts can be submitted in triplicate to: IHA Journal, Editorial Office, Postbus 75007, 1070 AA Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Once a paper is accepted, the preferred medium of submission is on disk (Macintosh or MS-DOS format), preferably MS Word 5. 0 or later, with accompanying manuscript. A guide for authors can be obtained from the IHA. Editor-in-Chief: Hayo M. G. van der Werf Editorial Advisory Board: Ivan Bocsa, GATE Agricultural Research Institute, Kompolt, Hungary Robert C. Clarke, PharmTex Consulting, San Diego, California, USA Sebastiaan Hennink, Hemp-Flax BV, Ressen, Netherlands Michael Karus, nova-Institute, Hurth/Cologne, Germany John M. McPartland, Vermont Alternative Medicine,
Middlebury, Vermont, USA Raphael Mechoulam, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel Etienne P. M. de Meijer, HortaPharm BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands David W. Pate, HortaPharm BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Gertjan van Roekel, ATO-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands David P. Watson, HortaPharm BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Donald Wirtshafter, Ohio Hempery, Athens, Ohio, USA Production: bbp2 prepress, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Printed on 100% hemp paper. Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 60 Shandong Province Shandong Province is located along the central coast of eastern China (see Fig. ) and has a continental climate. Summers produce heavy rain and average 21o C temperatures. Autumn weather is clear and sunny with an average temperature of 10 o C. Winters bring several snowfalls and average minus 4 o C. Spring is often foggy or rainy and the temperatures average 11o C. The city of Tai’an is located in west-central Shandong Province and is situated at the foot of Tai RUSSIA Map Area outcrops. This perhaps results from the ancient Taoist tradition of offering grain to the Jade Emperor atop Tai Shan peak during the Double Nines Festival held on the ninth day of the ninth month of the Chinese calendar.
Taoists consider the Jade Emperor to be the Supreme God of Heaven and spread offerings of grain so that the birds will carry their prayers and praises to the deity. New seeds are therefore brought to the mountain regularly. These escaped plants are of shorter stature (1-2 meters) than cultivated varieties and have brown CHINA YELLOW R. YANGTZE R. INDIA r Mt. Tai Fei Cheng Lai Wu Ri ve Tai’an Dong Ping Lake Ye llo w Ma Zhuang An Jia Zhuang Dong Ping Da Wen Kou Wen Yong Zhen Wuzu Miao River Wen Da He Shan Ha Yo Shin Tai Ning Yong Figure 2. Tai’an District, Shandong Province, P.
R. C. Shan, the most revered of the five sacred mountains of ancient China. Chinese mythology says that Tai Shan represents the head of Pan Gu, the mythological creator of China. His four limbs form the remaining four sacred mountains in North, South, West and Central China. The Chinese have made pilgrimages to Tai Shan for several millennia, believing that the mountain has power over Heaven and Earth, of which the summit is held to be a manifestation. Confucius ascended to the summit several times, over 2,000 years ago, as have many Chinese emperors.
Millions of devout Buddhist and Taoist Chinese have climbed the more than 7,000 stone steps to the summit; lighting incense, leaving offerings and praying at the dozens of shrines, temples, and carved stone calligraphies along the way. As one approaches the summit of Tai Shan, Cannabis can be seen growing spontaneously with increasing frequency along the sides of the paths. The mountain top is nearly covered in weedy hemp that has escaped cultivation and grows throughout the rocky seeds and medium sized leaves.
Their reduced stature and seed size likely result from the harsh climate of Tai Shan, but in other respects they are very similar in appearance to the locally cultivated hemp varieties. A different spontaneously occurring variety of Cannabis is found on the north side of Tai Shan far from the influence of religious pilgrimage. This “wild” (naturally occurring without the influence of cultivation) variety is characterized by very short stature (less than one meter), reduced leaves with narrow leaflets, tiny dark seeds, and a very compact and highly branched growth form, even when crowded together.
Some populations also have very red stems. Wild Cannabis flourishes on the rocky fringes of the highest terraced fields in the disturbed zone between cultivated lands and mountain slopes, along paths and roads, and in the shade of trees where no crops are planted. Spontaneously growing escaped and wild Cannabis does not survive as an intrusive weed in cultivated fields since it is removed by local farmers. Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 w N To Jinan 61 * (*some male plants start out as female at first nodes, but change to purely male as flowering continues)
Table 1. Phenotypic differences between the spontaneously growing wild and escaped populations and the cultivated small-seed and large-seed landrace types of the Tai’an district. In the Tai’an district, the landrace variety is referred to as either “Lai Wu” or “Fei Cheng” hemp, named after the famous eastern Lai Wu and central Fei Cheng hemp producing counties of the Tai’an District. Little if any intentional human selection has occurred and the evolution of the landrace has been directed almost entirely by unconscious selection by farmers and by natural factors.
No special selection for crop improvement is exercised by farmers. the Tai’an District fall into two groups; small light-colored seeds (1,000 seeds=12. 0 gr. ) with dark longitudinal stripes, and large brown seeds (1,000 seeds=26. 0 gr. ) with marbled patterns. Local agricultural officials report that the smallseeded variety is ‘Lai Wu ‘ and the large-seeded variety is ‘Fei Cheng’. Apparently the ‘Lai Wu’ and ‘Fei Cheng’ varieties have been traded back and forth throughout the Tai’an District for years. Both of these seed types are derived from segregation of the local landrace.
They originate from the same fields and both were found to be equal in bast content (8-15% d. w. ). About 65% of the plants in any given population are large-seeded, about 20% are small-seeded, and (based on seed characteristics) only about 15% seem to be hybrids between the two, although the two varieties are cultivated in the same fields. Few hybrids are observed because the two varieties flower at very different times. The hybrids likely occur only between late flowering females of the small-seed variety and early flowering males of the largeseed variety.
It would be very unlikely for males of the small-seed variety to hybridize with females of the largeseed variety since the small-seed males have ceased to shed pollen long before the large-seed females are receptive. Cultivated Plant Description The Shandong land race of Cannabis hemp is almost entirely dioecious. Plants are generally moderately branched and 2. 5-4. 0 meters in height. The foliage is medium to dark green and the leaves have 7-9 leaflets. The inflorescences are relatively sparse and seed yield is low compared to improved European varieties.
Although some individuals elaborate resin glands, they apparently produce little if any of the primary psychoactive cannabinoid THC, and the local landrace cannot be considered a drug variety. There is no local tradition of its use as either medicine or inebriant. The physical characteristics of the seeds of the cultivated Cannabis of Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 62 Several additional marked phenotypic differences are exhibited that must reflect underlying genotypic differences (see Table. ). The characteristics associated with the small-seed cultivated landrace could result from its breeding with a local wild variety, but this seems unlikely because the geographical ranges and flowering times of the wild populations do not coincide with the cultivated landraces. It is more likely that either the small-seed landrace is introduced from more northerly latitudes, since it matures early, or that the large-seed landrace is introduced from more southerly latitudes, since it matures late.
Local hearsay has it that hemp varieties were introduced from southern China, but this could not be verified with agricultural officials. Introductions of small amounts of throughout the Tai’an area in several counties where it is no longer cultivated today. During this time the region surrounding Lai Wu in eastern Tai’an District was considered to produce the tallest and finest hemp in Shandong Province. Very little hemp is grown in Lai Wu today and the vast majority of the hemp is grown in Fei Cheng and Ning Yong Counties.
By 1992 no more than 10,000 tons of hemp ribbon were produced in Tai’an District on less than 10,000 ha. The decline in hemp production resulted from diminished markets for hemp products and the low prices for raw hemp ribbon in comparison to other crops. Farmers feel they can earn more money from food crops such as wheat, maize, soy beans, peanuts, fruits, and vegetables. In Dong Ping County, approximately 1,600 tons of Table 2. Variations in stalk quality (length) between broadcast-sowing and row-sowing. seed from Japan also may have been made many years ago for the local production of woven burial shrouds.
Exchange of seed between counties within the Tai’an District is also common. Although the stalks of the smallseeded variety have a bast percentage equal to the largeseeded variety, they are shorter, so the overall yield is lower. Therefore, the farmers claim to prefer the largeseed variety. Despite this sentiment the small-seed variety is still present in the fields and consistently comprises approximately 20% of the population. This is one explanation for the lack of uniformity in local hemp crops that result in uneven competition within stands and for the production of many different height stalks.
This difference in height is especially apparent in the Autumn harvest season since the upward growth of small-seed plants is slowed due to their earlier flowering. hemp ribbon were produced in 1992, and about 625 tons were bought by the Dong Ping Heavenly Hemp Textile Mill. The remaining 975 tons bought by the company came from the other hemp producing counties of Fei Cheng and Ning Yong and the Tai’an Urban District within Tai’an District. In 1993, the Dong Ping Heavenly Hemp Textile Mill purchased 1,600 tons of hemp ribbon from farmers in the Tai’an District. This represents the production from about 1,500 ha.
The total amount of land planted in hemp in Tai’an District in 1993 was estimated by local agricultural officials and hemp mill representatives to be approximately 5,300 ha. These estimates may be somewhat high. Estimates based on local data collected by interviewing village leaders and agricultural advisors, and the trends extrapolated from these data, lead to the conclusion that closer to 4,000 ha of land was used to grow hemp in 1993. The remainder of this study concerns recent hemp production in Tai’an District along the Da Wen river south and west of Tai’an city.
This area includes Dong Ping County (south and east of Dong Ping Lake), Tai’an Urban District (near the villages of Da Wen Kou and Ma Zhuang), Ning Yong County (near the villages of He Shan and Jiang Ji), and Fei Cheng County (near the villages of Wen Yong Zhen and Wuzu Miao). Extent of Hemp Cultivation In the 1970s and early 1980s, Shandong Province produced more than 100,000 tons of hemp ribbon annually. (Hemp ribbons are strips of bark peeled from the outside of the stalks that contain bast fibers. The author’s estimates, based on interviews with local agriculture officials, indicate that the Tai’an District grew about 65,000 ha annually and produced about 60,000 tons of ribbon which accounted for about 60% of the production of Shandong Province. Hemp was widely grown Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 63 Field Conditions The growing season for Spring hemp extends for approximately 110-120 days from late March (Spring Equinox) through July (Seasons of Slight and Great Heat). The Spring crop reaches canopy stage at 1. 0-1. 5 meters by the middle of April.
The Summer crop is planted in middle June (Season of Grain-in-Ear) and harvested in late August (Season of Limit of Heat) or early September (Season of White Dew). Spring hemp is regularly irrigated. Farmers of Summer hemp rely on Summer rains to irrigate their crop. Irrigation from numerous wells is often provided several times during the growing season. (This is in contrast to the single Hungarian hemp season that extends from May through August, during which the crop is never irrigated. ) Much more land would be available for hemp cultivation if hemp was to rival maize or soy bean as the major Spring and Summer crop.
Only significant economic incentives for farmers will revive hemp production in Tai’an District. The soil type in this area is a coarse sandy clay with very few small rocks. It drains readily and most of the fields appear healthy and productive. The soil south of Dong Ping Lake is heavier than the soil in Fei Cheng and Ning Yong Counties, drains more slowly, and is subject to flooding. Hemp is grown primarily on the rich flat-bottom valley land along the Da Wen river and very little is grown in the terraced foothill fields. The hemp crop is harvested in its entirety before the plants begin to flower, approximately 100-120 days from sowing.
Plants range in height from 1. 5 to 3. 5 meters. The average height of healthy stands of hemp is 2. 5 meters. The majority of plants have ceased rapid stalk elongation as they approach flowering. Upon close observation a few of the plants can be sexed at harvest in middle July (Season of Slight Heat), but none have begun to flower. Cultivation Techniques Seeds of the local landrace are reproduced each year from remnant seed saved by the farmer. There is no intentional selection by the farmers, except possibly for the large-seed characteristic, and there are no imports of improved seed from other regions of China.
Seed is traditionally broadcast by hand at a seeding rate of 75 kg/ha for hemp fiber production and the resulting stand density ranges from 118-133 plants/m2. (Hungarian hemp farmers usually sow from 70-85 kg/ha depending on the seed size and viability. Nearly 400 seeds are sown/m2 resulting in 150 to 200 stalks/m2 at harvest) In recent years, at the suggestion of local agricultural advisors in Wen Yang County, a few fields were sown by planting in rows approximately 10-15 cm apart rather than by broadcasting. In this case, the same sowing rate was used but the stand density ranged from 187-215 plants/m2. Average Hungarian hemp fields are planted in rows 12 cm apart. ) The average yield/m2 of stalks was increased by 60% and the average percentage of first quality fiber was also increased by 60% by planting in rows. This results from the increase in surviving stalks when seeds are sown in rows, rather than broadcast (Table 2). Fertilizers are applied before sowing and when the crop is about 50 cm tall. Various animal manures (15-60 tons/ha) and soy bean meal (up to 1,500 kg/ha) are spread on the fields and plowed or spaded under in the Spring well before sowing.
Mixtures of chemical fertilizers are commonly used at a total application rate of up to 1,000 kg/ha. Figure 2. Bundles of hemp stalks retting in a pond. (Hungarian hemp is harvested when it begins to flower and the male plants shed pollen, but very few viable seeds form before the hemp is harvested in late August. ) Since hemp is harvested before it flowers, no seed is produced. Seed is produced either in fields intentionally sown for seed, or from plants growing along the margins of fields, on the banks of irrigation ditches or along roadsides.
Seed crops are planted in late May (Season of Full Grain) or early June (Season of Grain-in-Ear) with the rows spaced approximately 50 cm apart. Seed plants are harvested in the middle of October (Season of Cold Dew). Only one insect pest seems to cause economic damage to the Spring hemp crop. A small shiny black jumping flea-beetle infested all of the fields to varying degrees. Few fields were uninfected. In fields where less fertilizer was used, and crop growth was not quite so vigorous, the beetle infestations reached tremendous levels, and they skeletonized all of the leaves on every plant.
The beetles must certainly lower yield, but it was difficult to determine by how much, since the only fields to be seriously attacked were those where little fertilizer was applied, low nutrient levels also decreasing yields dramatically. Farmers report that the flea beetles only cause damage late in the crop cycle during the last month Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 64 before harvest, and that the fields harvested last have the worst infestations of flea beetles. Seed crops maturing in the Autumn are plagued by leafhoppers, caterpillars, aphids, and many other common agricultural pests.
Hemp fields are planted so thickly that weeds are shaded by the dense canopy and crowded out. Weeding is only necessary in widely spaced seed gardens. No herbicides or insecticides are used on hemp in Tai’an District since they are expensive and few pests threaten to cause serious economic damage. Hemp Processing The hemp crop is harvested by cutting all of the stalks at the soil line with a short-bladed sickle, taking care not to pull up any roots. Bits of root attached to the ends of the ribbons lower their quality and must be removed later by hand at the mill.
Dry soil is more convenient for harvesting because the shallow roots stay in the ground rather than pulling out. Branched plants at the margins of the fields are usually discarded or occasionally saved for seed production. The plants are graded by pulling out the longest stems of highest quality first. The top projecting leaves of the bundles are pulled to first select the longest stalks and then the medium length stalks of second quality are removed. The short and twisted stalks of third quality are taken back to the village for domestic use, such as laying crude twine and rope, and do not normally enter into commerce.
The leaves are stripped from the graded stalks with a long field knife before drying. The three grades of stalks are separated and laid out in the sun in a single layer across the empty harvested field for 2-4 days until they are partially dried. (The Hungarians dry the stalks completely and ret either in the Autumn or the following Spring and Summer after the weather warms. ) The partially dried stalks are then bundled together approximately 200 at a time and immersed in a pond, stream, or brick tank for 1 to 3 days of retting.
The bundles are turned twice a day in ponds or streams, or weighted down with stones and timbers in retting tanks, to keep them wet. Since the stalks are still somewhat moist, and do not float as buoyantly as completely dried stalks, they need not o o be weighted so heavily. The retting water is from 23 to 30 C. depending on the depth of the water and its exposure to direct sunlight. (Hungarian retting takes a week or ten days in much cooler water, or only a few days in warm geothermal water. ) After the brief retting the stalks are again laid out on the field in a single layer and partially dried in the sun for 2 to 3 days.
If the initial retting was insufficient to free the fibers the stalks are sometimes retted a second time and partially dried again. At this point, the stalks can be processed by two different methods. The most common is the wet-method in which the stalks are partially dried and then stripped of their fibers by hand. Small bundles of these bast fiber ribbons are then tied together near the basal end and dried on lines in the sun. After they are thoroughly dried for several days, the smaller bundles are tied together, ten at a time, and bundled tightly for market. This wet-method allows the farmer to market his hemp very quickly.
However, a very few farmers dry the stalks completely and store the dried stalks until later in the Summer or Autumn. They then break the dried stems and comb the ribbons to remove the woody hurds by the typical Western dry-method. The yield of salable ribbon by the dry-method is approximately 10% of total dry stalks, while the yield of salable ribbon by the wet-method is approximately 8% of total dry stalks. Dry-method hemp is of slightly higher average quality than wet-method hemp, and as there is far less dry-method hemp, it commands a slightly higher price at market.
Bast fiber content of plants of the local landrace saved for seed production ranged from 5-22% and averaged 12%. (Improved Hungarian varieties yield from 30-35% bast. ) Apparently the dry-method was initiated in 1986 by request of the Dong Ping Hemp Mill, but it has not gained much popularity, as it requires specialized equipment. The mill uses mostly wet-method ribbon but prefers to use the less common dry-method ribbon. By 1995 almost all of the hemp ribbon was produced by hand stripping of partially dried stalks.
Any technique that will make the farmer’s work easier and free up their fields earlier, so they can sow another crop, is always favored and becomes the most common. A good crop produces approximately 8-12 tons of dry stalks and 0. 7-1. 0 tons/ha of first and second quality (long and medium length) salable ribbon. (Hungarian hemp fields produce 7-10 tons/ha of dry stalks or approximately 2. 5-3. 5 tons/ha of ribbon. ) Hemp Marketing The quality and price of hemp ribbon are determined by its method of preparation, length, and moisture content.
Long strands of well retted and dried hemp ribbon command the highest prices. The price of hemp ribbon is lowest in July and August when hemp fills the markets following the Summer harvest. In July of 199, the farmers were being paid up to US$ 0. 60/kg for first-quality wet-method ribbon and US$ 0. 400. 50/kg for second-quality wet-method hemp ribbon. By July 1994 it was reported that the farmer was being paid US$ 0. 75/kg for first-quality ribbon. The July 1994 harvest was delayed slightly by heavy rains during early July, but this also raised the total yield of hemp.
In July of 1995 the market price of first-quality hemp ribbon had risen to nearly US$ 1. 00/kg. Seed Production and Marketing Seed for the following year’s sowing is obtained from two sources. The largest portion of the seed comes from fields that were planted for hemp seed production. The second source of seed is from spontaneously growing escaped roadside ditch plants that the farmers call “wild”. Cultivated seed fields are usually sown in late May or early June (Seasons of Grain and Grain-in-ear) in clusters of 4-5 seeds at approximately 15-50 cm intervals in rows
Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 65 approximately one meter apart in order to allow sufficient branch development and increased seed yield. All of the seed plants have sparse inflorescences and even the most fecund have a fairly low average yield of seed (400-500 kg/ha) when compared to improved hemp varieties from eastern Europe (800-1,200 kg/ha). Roadside plants have very sparse flowers and even lower seed yield, due mainly to a lack of nutrients. The seed crop is traditionally harvested during the Season of Cold Dew and before the Season of Frost’s Descent.
This time falls approximately between October 8 and October 23. The inflorescence is absolutely non-shattering and the seeds must be threshed from the plants during collection. This indicates that the Shandong landrace is fully domesticated. The seeds are very resistant to threshing unless the plants are fully dried. The seed is threshed from the plants in three stages. After the seed plants are harvested, they are stacked in pyramids and allowed to partially dry for 2-3 days before the first threshing. The plants are still fairly moist and supple at the time of the first threshing.
Only the most mature seeds fall from the inflorescences as the whole plants are flailed against the ground. The first threshing produces the highest yield of the most mature and highest quality seed. The second threshing of the whole plants is done after the plants have had a few more days to dry and the less mature seeds can be freed more easily. The third and final threshing is performed a few days later when the plants have had time to thoroughly dry. The last of the seed is squeezed from the inflorescences by rolling them between the palms or by children walking barefooted on top of the plants.
In each case the seed is dried in the sun for 2-3 days to ensure that it is sufficiently dry to be stored in rice sacks without spoiling. The farmers keep a constant daytime watch and hang brightly colored cloth above the stacks of drying seed plants to prevent small sparrows from feeding on the seeds. Firecrackers are commonly used to scare flocks of feeding birds away from the seed fields. Seed plants are often transported to the farmer’s home immediately after they are harvested to prevent further destruction of the seed by birds and rodents.
Some special cultivation techniques are used in hemp seed fields to increase yield. The tops of female plants are often removed as they begin to flower so they will grow more branches and consequently yield more seed. Sometimes up to 90% of the male plants are thinned at the time of early flowering to allow the female plants more room to branch and yield more seeds. The fiber of the highly branched male plants and seed plants is too coarse for textiles and is used by the peasants to make rope, binding twine, and other domestic products.
The majority of seed is bought by other local hemp farmers who require additional seed to grow their hemp fiber crop. The remainder is sold in Tai’an city for bird seed. Hemp seed usually sells for US$ 0. 75-1. 00/kg. Maize seed costs US$ 0. 75-1. 00/kg, soy bean seed costs US$ 0. 25/kg, and peanut seed costs US$ 0. 30/kg. Densely planted stands of fiber hemp are sown at a rate of 75 kg/ha, while maize fields are sown at a rate of 10 – 15 kg/ha, so hemp is by far the most costly agricultural seed. Traditional uses
Shandong Province has a long history of folk uses for hemp. In today’s open market most of the first and second quality hemp ribbon is sold for cash to suppliers and only the third quality hemp ribbon from short and twisted stalks is commonly used domestically. Sometimes the fibers are stripped from the stalks without retting or entire small stalks are twisted or braided together to make crude rope. The local peasants traditionally made twine, rope, sacking, burial cloths and other domestic items from the small stalks, ribbon and fiber.
The small stalks are used directly for binding without any further processing, the hemp ribbon is twisted into twine, or the fiber is extracted and laid into rope. Hemp stalks are tied together to make crude walls for field shacks and are also lashed together in the garden for bean trellises and light fences. Neither hemp seed, nor hemp seed oil, is commonly eaten in Tai’an district. This is in direct contrast to much of China where whole hemp seeds are eaten uncooked or roasted as snacks and oil is also sometimes pressed from the seed. The peasants around Tai’an say that if you eat too many hemp seeds (about 250 gr. you will faint. The resincovered bracts adhere tightly to the outside of the seed, and this may be the reason for this legend, even though the local landrace is only slightly psychoactive. Pigs and other farm animals eat the fresh leaves that are cut from the hemp stalks and seed plants before they dry completely. Crude paper is occasionally made from the hurds or wood. Local paper factories include hemp hurds and hemp fiber to strengthen wheat straw paper. The hurds are most commonly used to start coal fires for cooking and heating. A small specialty market also exists based on direct export of unprocessed hemp products to Japan.
Raw fiber is used there for the hand spinning of fine textiles and specialty paper production. Japanese traders also buy a limited number of long straight hemp stalks for fireworks manufacture or for use as funerary offerings. Long straight clean stalks, peeled of their fiber are used in Japanese funerary rituals to show respect for the spirit of the deceased. In 1993 the farmers received (0. 3 US$/kg) for cleaned stalks. Conclusions A comparative study of the historical and current techniques of hemp cultivation in the Tai’an District provides insights into the relatively unchanged practices of peasant farmers.
More importantly, an understanding of these ingrained hemp farming and processing methods will allow advisers to make more appropriate suggestions concerning the modernization of local hemp production. Rapid changes in hemp farming and processing will follow in the wake of Western investment in local hemp production. Advisers must make educated decisions concerning the timely implementation of these changes. Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 66 Fibre hemp cultivars: A survey of origin, ancestry, availability and brief gronomic characteristics Etienne de Meijer HortaPharm B. V. , Schinkelhavenkade 6, 1075 VS Amsterdam, The Netherlands Meijer, E. P. M. de 1995. Fibre hemp cultivars: A survey of origin, ancestry, availability and brief agronomic characteristics Journal of the International Hemp Association 2(2): 66-73. Due to renewed interest in hemp, many experiments in Western Europe, Australia and Canada have been initiated which are aimed at (resumed) domestic hemp production. Obtaining sufficient seed quantities from a range of different cultivars is a practical difficulty often met by researchers.
The present paper surveys the more or less currently available cultivars with respect to breeding history and provides addresses of seed suppliers. Agronomic characteristics assessed in standardized variety trials in the Netherlands are treated briefly. Union is relevant as within the EU cultivation of fibre crops including registered hemp cultivars is supported by an equivalent of ca US$ 1,050 per hectare. The reasons for this support are that fibre production in the EU does not meet the demand, and, that the yearly fluctuations in both production and prices are considered too strong.
Out of the twelve presently registered EU cultivars only the seven French cultivars are readily available. In order to be less dependent on the French hemp seed distributor several cultivars originating outside the EU were submitted for EU registration in 1995, eight in Austria and three in the Netherlands. For 1996, other submissions probably concerning newly bred cultivars from within the EU are expected in the Netherlands. The procedure for registration takes two to three years and comprises research aimed at morphological distinctness and practical agronomic value of the submitted material in relation to reference cultivars.
Once a cultivar is registered in a member state it will automatically be placed on the general EU register. This implies that its cultivation should be admitted by any member and that it should be eligible for EU subsidy. However, a member state may obstruct admittance on the ground of lack of quality or distinctness in relation to domestic cultivars and of course national drug legislation may hamper actual application. Introduction There is a renewed interest in hemp as a source of cellulose fibre and seed oil in Western European countries, Australia, the US and Canada as these ountries share a need for profitable arable non-food crops. Many experiments which are aimed at the feasibility of domestic hemp production have recently been initiated. All Western countries, except France, have either never had a hemp industry, or have interrupted it for decades. A substantial hemp industry has survived only in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet-Union and China. Presently, legal measures against Cannabis drug use in Western countries may improperly discourage any hemp activities, including research.
Other obstacles generally faced by individuals wanting to resume a fibre hemp industry are more practical: local cultivars are extinct, there is no adequate harvesting machinery and fibre extraction technology is antiquated. At least for the short term, the new initiatives must rely on cultivars imported from countries which currently breed hemp. As far as the author knows, the breeding of new domestic cultivars has only been pursued in a recent program the Netherlands (van Berlo, 1993) which focused on hemp grown as a raw material for pulp.
This paper surveys national registration and registration in European Union member states, as far as could be traced, by country of origin the current cultivars, with regard to commercial availability. Further, it briefly presents some agronomic characteristics. The commercial availability of cultivars can rapidly change, and the assessment of the present situation, based on personal experience, hearsay and assumptions, may hence contain mis-information. Prices recently charged for seed for sowing are given when available. The status with regard to registration in the European
Fibre hemp in the Cannabis genepool All strains within the genus Cannabis intercross readily (Small, 1972) and the pattern of variation for all morphological and agronomic traits is continuous (Small et al. , 1976). Hence there is little reason to distinguish other species than the single C. sativa L. Morphologically discriminated subspecies and varieties are not very suitable to indicate plant groups of various economic interest. Non-biosystematic classifications, for example based on purpose and status of domestication, are more appropriate to circumscribe such groups.
Accordingly, one can distinguish truly wild and naturalized populations, fibre landraces and fibre cultivars, drug strains and even ornamentals. Such pre-defined ‘plant-use groups’ (de Meijer, 1994) can be recognized quite well on the basis of experimental observations of agronomic traits. Contents of bark fibre and cannabinoids, the major goals of domestication, are fairly discriminative between groups. From the breeding histories it is evident that a considerable mutual genetic relatedness exists among the modern European and West Asian cultivars.
Landraces belonging to the Mediterranean and Central Russian fibre hemp ecotype groups and cross-progenies of these two groups have directly been the basis of, or have been used Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 67 POPULATION STATUS Hybrid F1 cultivars Uniko B Kompolti Hybrid TC Fibriko Cross-bred cultivars (population hybrids) Cross-progenies from central and northern ancestors only Fasamo Cross-progenies from northern and southern ancestors Monoecious Dioecious Cross-progenies from southern ancestors only Kuban Krasnodarskaya 56 ICAR 42-118 Cross-progenies from southern and far eastern ancestors
Ferramington (USA) Cross-progenies from far eastern ancestors only Arlington (USA) Fibrimon (German) Fibridia Fibrimon 21 JUS 6 Fibrimon 24 JUS 9 Fibrimon 56 Eletta Campana Ferimon 12 Kompolti Sargaszaru Fedora 19 Fibramulta 151 Felina 34 Fibranova Fedrina 74 Futura 77 Bialobrzeskie Beniko Secuieni 1 Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6 USO-11 USO-13 YUSO-14 YUSO-16 Cultivars and breeder’s materials selected directly from landraces Bredemann selections LKCSD Bernburger einhorigen Glukhovskaya 10 Kompolti Fleischmann hemp Szegedi 9 Lovrin 110 Carmagnola Selezionata Dneprovskaya 4 Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya Novosadska Konoplja
Kinai (Hungary) Kymington (USA) Chington (USA) Chinese cvs. (? ) Landraces Schurigs Ermakovskaya Mestnaya Dwarf Northern Russian hemp Finnish early Novgorod-Scversk Rastslaviska Kastamonu Carmagnola Bologna Silistrenski Tiborszallasi Chinese landraces Naturalized (weedy) populations Unnamed wild populations in N. & C. Europe and NW Asia Unnamed wild populations in Southern Europe, Turkey and Caucasus Unnamed wild populations in China, the midwestern US and Canada Central & Northern ecotypes (North & Central Russia/Ukraine, Finland) Southern ecotypes (Mediterranean region, Balkan, Turkey, Caucasus)
Far-Eastern hemp (China, Japan, Korea) GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS Figure 1. The hemp strains mentioned in the text classified roughly according to population status and geographical group. Solid arrows indicate the descent of the groups due to breeding activities. Dashed arrows indicate spontaneous naturalization. Boxes enclose open-ended groups of strains. Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 68 as breeding parent for, each of the present European and West Asian cultivars (Fig. 1). Fibre strains from China (Far Eastern hemp) may be somewhat distinct from the previous ones.
References on Chinese fibre strains are hardly available, indicating that landraces are still primarily cultivated. At the beginning of the 20th century Chinese landraces were used to select the now extinct Kentucky hemp cultivars that were cultivated until the mid-1950s in the United States. The first improved selection from Chinese origin was called ‘Minnesota No. 8’ (Dewey, 1913). Dewey (1927) gives the ancestries of the later developed Kentucky cultivars: ‘Kymington’ was selected from the progeny of a free-pollinated single female plant of ‘Minnesota No. 8’. Chington’ was obtained by successive individual selection in the progeny of a single female plant from a different introduction from China. ‘Arlington’ was selected from the progeny of the crossing (‘Kymington’ x ‘Chington’). ‘Ferramington’ was selected from the progeny of a cross between the Northern Italian landrace ‘Ferrara’ and ‘Kymington’. A Chinese strain is presently used in Hungary as a heterosis breeding parent which is relatively unrelated to the crossing partners of European origin (Bocsa 1954). Naturalized (weedy) Cannabis populations (sometimes indicated as C. ruderalis Janischevsky; C. sativa ssp. uderalis or C. sativa var. spontanea) which persist in many continental areas descend from previously cultivated fibre hemp crops and can hence be considered related to fibre strains once grown at a certain location. They are, however, completely different in appearance. Close relatedness between drug and fibre strains seems unlikely due to geographic isolation and the long-lasting distinct human utilizations of the two groups. Origin, breeding history, registration and availability The cultivars below are presented by country. Each current cultivar name, unlike those of its ancestors, is printed once in boldface.
The sexual type (monoecious, dioecious, unisexual), being a trait closely linked to breeding strategy, is usually given. Other agronomic characteristics are treated in the next section. It should be realized that the preservation of any desired agronomic trait in hemp cultivars, especially the monoecious character, requires continuous selection during seed multiplication. French cultivars Cultivars from France are bred and commercialized by the Federation Nationale des Producteurs de Chanvre (FNPC), 20, rue Paul Ligneul, F-72000, Le Mans, France; Fax: +33 4377 0916. French cultivars are monoecious.
In France they are grown for pulp. Their cultivation within the EU is eligible for the subsidy on fibre crops. Current breeding in France is mainly aimed at maintenance of the present cultivars (conservative breeding) and at further reduction of their THC content. Seed for sowing is readily available in two qualities. Crops grown from first quality seed (elite seed) consist almost exclusively of monoecious plants. Those from second quality seed (harvested from free-pollinated crops raised from elite seed) comprise, due to natural genetic drift, 15 to 30% males as well as a substantial amount of true-female plants.
In 1995 prices were 19. 30 FF/kg (ca US$ 4. 00) for first quality seeds and 14. 80 FF/kg (ca US$ 3. 00) for second class seed. Within France, for FNCP members, seed is cheaper (O. Beherec, pers. comm. , 1995). All French cultivars are either selected directly from ‘Fibrimon’ (truly-monoecious cultivars), or from crossprogenies of ‘Fibrimon’ and several dioecious exotic fibre strains (pseudo-monoecious cvs. ). ‘Fibrimon’ is a monoecious cross-bred cultivar with high fibre content. It was bred at the German Max-Planck-Institut HamburgVolksdorf by von Sengbusch between 1951 and 1955 (Bredemann et al. 1961). The parental populations were: inbred material obtained from monoecious plants spontaneously occurring in ‘Havellandische’ or ‘Schurigs’ hemp which was again a selection from Central-Russian origin (Hoffmann, 1961); dioecious selections with very high fibre content from Germany (also retained from Central-Russian populations) and dioecious late-flowering landraces from Italy and Turkey. ‘Fibrimon’ was transferred to France, among other countries, in the late 1950s. The crossing of selected exotic populations with ‘Fibrimon’ was carried out in the 1960s.
Most details on the breeding of French cvs. are based on J. P. Mathieu (pers. comm. , 1992). The current cultivars ‘Fibrimon 21’, ‘Fibrimon 24’ and ‘Fibrimon 56’, were selected directly from ‘Fibrimon’ for diverging dates of maturity. ‘Ferimon 12’ is an early maturing selection from ‘Fibrimon 21’, especially intended for seed production. The higher the numbers added to the names of French cultivars, the later they are supposed to flower and mature. ‘Fedora 19’ is the result of a cross between female plants of the Russian dioecious cv.
JUS 9 and monoecious individuals from ‘Fibrimon 21’, followed by back-crossing of the unisexual female F1 with ‘Fibrimon 21’ intersex plants. The parent ‘JUS 9’ is an offspring from a crossing between ‘Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya’ (originally selected from Italian hemp) and dwarf northern Russian hemp. Likewise, ‘Felina 34’ results from a cross between the dioecious parent ‘Kompolti’, and ‘Fibrimon 24’, followed by back-crossing with ‘Fibrimon 24’. ‘Fedrina 74’ and ‘Futura 77’ both result from a cross between the dioecious parent ‘Fibridia’ and ‘Fibrimon 24’ followed by back-crossing with ‘Fibrimon 24′. Fibridia’ is described by Bredemann et al. (1961). It originates from the same German program as ‘Fibrimon’ and has the same ancestors, except the monoecious ‘Schurigs’ inbreds. A new completely THC-free cultivar, with name and pedigree unknown to the author has been registered in 1995 (O. Beherec, pers. comm. , 1995). Hungarian cultivars Present Hungarian fibre hemp cultivars originate from the GATE-“Rudolf Fleischmann” Agricultural Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 69 Research Institute, H-3356 Kompolt (Heves), Hungary; Fax: +36 36 489 000.
Current activities at GATE with respect to fibre hemp are mainly restricted to maintenance of the existing cultivars. However, in the context of an agreement with HempFlax b. v. (Netherlands), creative breeding has been resumed to create an early maturing dioecious cultivar for Western-Europe. Hungarian cultivars are generally dioecious and used for production of rope and technical fabrics. Seeds from the cultivars listed below, except ‘Kompolti Sargaszaru’, are readily commercially available from the company Fibroseed (which can be reached through the GATE institute).
Recent (1995) prices were ca US$ 3. 50/kg. Details on the breeding of Hungarian cvs. are based on I. Bocsa (pers. comm. , 1995) and Bocsa (1995). ‘Kompolti’ has been selected for high fibre content from ‘Fleischmann hemp’ or ‘F-hemp’ which is from Italian origin. It was registered in 1954. To make it eligible for EU subsidy it was submitted in 1995 for registration in the Netherlands, by Hemcore Ltd. , as well as in Austria, by Raiffaisen Waren Austria (RWA). The chlorophyll-deficient yellow-stemmed ‘Kompolti Sargaszaru’ was registered in 1974, but is however not currently cultivated.
It was obtained from a cross between a spontaneous yellow-stemmed mutant from Germany (Helle Stengel-Hoffmann, found in the offspring of a cross between Finnish early and Italian late hemp) and ‘Kompolti’, which was repeatedly back-crossed with ‘Kompolti’ (Bocsa, 1969). Small seed quantities of ‘Kompolti Sargaszaru’ are available for research purposes. Hungary is the only country where heterosis breeding of hemp became implemented. This resulted in several F1 hybrid cultivars. A single cross hybrid cultivar is ‘UnikoB’ (registered in 1969).
It is a hybrid progeny of (‘Kompolti’ x ‘Fibrimon 21’) where the monoecious ‘Fibrimon 21’ acts as pollen spender. The F1, being almost unisexual female, is used to produce an F2, containing ca 30% males, which is cultivated for fibre. ‘Uniko-B’ was recently submitted for registration in Austria by RWA. ‘Kompolti Hybrid TC’ (registered in 1983) is a threeway-cross hybrid in which two selections from Chinese origin, ‘Kinai Ketlaki’ (dioecious) and ‘Kinai Egylaki’ (monoecious), and ‘Kompolti’ are combined.
The first step of the crossing (‘Kinai dioecious’ x ‘Kinai monoecious’), where the monoecious parent acts as pollen spender, gives a unisexual, almost pure female F1, called ‘Kinai Uniszex’. This unisexual progeny can be considered as an analogue for male sterile breeding lines. It is subsequently used as female parent in the crossing (‘Kinai Uniszex’ x ‘Kompolti’) which produces the commercial three-way-cross hybrid ‘Kompolti Hybrid TC’, which has again a 50/50 sex ratio. ‘Fibriko’ (registered 1989) is the most recent Hungarian hybrid.
It results from a three-way cross for which ‘Kinai dioecious’ and ‘Kinai monoecious’ are first crossed to produce the unisexual female progeny ‘Kinai Uniszex’, which is subsequently crossed with the yellow-stemmed pollen spender ‘Kompolti Sargaszaru’. However, ‘Fibriko’ is not yellow-stemmed, as the normal green stem (from ‘Kinai Uniszex’) dominates over yellow. Polish cultivars The Institute of Natural Fibres (INF), Wojska Polskiego 71B, 60-630 Poznan, Poland; Fax: +4861 417 830, is responsible for the breeding and supply of sowing material of Polish hemp. The current Polish cultivars ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Beniko’ are monoecious.
They are mainly intended for production of cordage, military fabrics, blended yarns (hemp with wool and cotton), fibre board and technical oil products. Seeds of both ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Beniko’ are readily available, recently (1995) charged prices by INF were US$ 3. 00/kg. Creative hemp breeding has continued at INF and recently resulted in monoecious cultivars with the tentative names ‘W-1’, ‘Dolnoslaskie’ and ‘D/83’ (R. Kozlowski, pers. comm. , 1995). The author is not familiar with the ancestry of these potential cultivars. They are low in THC and have better (finer) fibre quality for textiles than ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Beniko’. W-1′ and ‘Dolnoslaskie’ have been submitted to national registration tests but now seem to have been withdrawn again, and ‘D-83’ is still in the breeding process. Details on the breeding of Polish cvs. are based on B. Jaranowska (pers. comm. 1992). ‘Bialobrzeskie’, registered in 1968, is the result of a multiple crossing of dioecious and monoecious strains: (((‘LKCSD’ x ‘Kompolti’) x ‘Bredemann 18’) x ‘Fibrimon 24’), followed by long term plant selection for fibre content. The dioecious parent ‘LKCSD’ was selected from ‘Havellandische’ or ‘Schurigs’ hemp from Central-Russian origin.
The dioecious ‘Bredemann 18’ is a selection from Germany (originally also Central Russian) and is very rich in fibre. ‘Bialobrzeskie’ is submitted for registration in Austria by Saatbau Linz (I. Bocsa, pers. comm. , 1995). The most recent cultivar Beniko is a progeny, obtained by individual selection, from the crossing (‘Fibrimon 24’ x ‘Fibrimon 21’). It was registered in Poland in 1985. To make it eligible for EU subsidy, ‘Beniko’ was submitted for registration in 1995 in the Netherlands by HempFlax B. V. , as well as in Austria by Saatbau Linz (I. Bocsa, pers. comm. , 1995).
Romanian cultivars The current Romanian hemp cultivars originate from three different breeding institutes. At least the Agricultural Research Station in Secuieni is still involved in creative hemp breeding. Romania produces hemp fabrics and yarns in fine qualities. ‘Fibramulta 151’ originates from the Research Institute of Crops and Industry Plants in Fundulea and was registered in 1965. It is a dioecious selection from the single cross (‘ICAR 42-118’ x ‘Fibridia’). The parent ‘ICAR 42-118’ is a cross progeny of Italian (‘Carmagnola’ and Bologna hemp) and Turkish (‘Kastamonu’) strains (Hoffmann, 1961).
Details on the availability of seed are not known. The dioecious ‘Lovrin 110’ originates from the Agricultural Research Station, Lovrin, Jud. Timisoara. It Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 70 was registered in 1981, as a replacement for ‘Fibramulta 151’. It was bred by selection among family groups from the Bulgarian Silistra landrace (‘Silistrenski’). Details on its availability are unknown. The monoecious ‘Secuieni 1’ originates from the Agricultural Research Station, Secuieni (Neamt county) and is presently commercialized by Rohemp S. A. , Str. Limpejoarci nr. sector 1, Bucharest, Romania; Fax: +40 1 210 1261. Rohemp is represented in Austria by J. Hofer, Tendlergasse 12/003, A-1090 Wien; Phone/Fax: +43 222 4036039. It was state registered in 1984. To make it eligible for EU subsidy it was submitted for registration in 1995 in the Netherlands by Hemcore Ltd. , as well as in Austria by Rohemp S. A. ‘Secuieni 1’ results from the crossing (‘Dneprovskaya 4’ x ‘Fibrimon’) followed by two back-crosses with ‘Fibrimon 21’ and ‘Fibrimon 24’, respectively. The Russian dioecious parent ‘Dneprovskaya 4’ was selected from ‘Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya’ which, again, was obtained from Italian hemp.
Besides ‘Secuieni 1’, the recently released cv. Irene is also commercially available through Rohemp and was submitted by this company for registration in Austria in 1995. The breeding history of this cv. is unknown to the author. In 1995, Rohemp charged 5 DM/kg (ca US$ 3. 50) for the seed of both ‘Secuieni 1’ and ‘Irene’. Cultivars from the former USSR Eight cultivars are presently cultivated in the central and southern parts of the Ukraine and Russia. They are used for the production of shipping cordage, ropes, core for steel cables, twines and, technical fabrics. Hemp cultivars in the former USSR are lassified into maturity groups or geographical types. Current cultivars belong either to the southern, late maturing group, bred at the Agricultural Research Institute of Krasnodar or to a group of hybrid progenies from central and southern hemp. Cultivars of the latter group are intended for cultivation at higher latitudes than to which they are ecologically adapted. They were generally bred at, and are commercialized by the (former) Federal Research Institute of Fibre Plants, today called: Ukrainian Institute of Bast Crops, Lenina street 45, 245130 Sumy Region, Glukhov, Ukraine; Fax: +380 54 4422643.
At least two of the latter group of cultivars, USO-11 and USO-13, are also commercially available through the Krasnohirska company, located near Zolotonosha, Ukraine; Fax + 380 472 450808. Recently (1995) charged prices by Krasnohirska were US$ 2/kg. Data on the ancestries of former USSR cvs. are partly based on unpublished notes of K. Hillig (Indiana University). The dioecious southern type cultivar Kuban was registered in 1984. It was obtained by ten cycles of family group selection in the hybrid progeny from (‘Szegedi 9’ x ‘Krasnodarskaya 56’).
The breeding parent ‘Szegedi 9’ was selected in Hungary from the Tiborszallasi landrace. ‘Krasnodarskaya 56’ is probably a selected cross progeny from local Caucasian and Italian strains (Hoffmann, 1961). The dioecious southern cv. Zenica (synonym ‘Shenitsa’) was registered in 1990. The ancestry is unknown to the author. The monoecious southern cv. Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6 is obtained by family group selection in the progeny from (‘Szegedi 9’ x ‘Fibrimon 56’). It was registered in 1980. The remaining current cultivars have a southern phenological pattern but are cultivated at higher latitudes.
They are all monoecious. Their names generally provide specifications with respect to ecotype (yuzhnaya = southern) and the monoecious character (odnodomnaya). Identical cultivar names, only differing in the added numbers, do not necessarily indicate common ancestry. ‘Zolotonoshskaya Yuzhnosozrevayushchaya Odnodomnaya 11’ (synonyms: ‘Zolotonoshskaja 11’ and ‘Zolotonosha 11’; abbreviated ‘USO-11’ or ‘YUSO11’) was registered in 1984. Parental populations used for the breeding of this cultivar are ‘Dneprovskaya 4’, ‘YUSO21’ and ‘Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6’ (N. M. Orlov, pers. comm. via J.
Masura, 1995). The dioecious parent ‘Dneprovskaya 4’ was selected from ‘Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya’ which again was obtained from Italian hemp. The ancestry of parent ‘YUSO-21’ is not known. ‘Zolotonoshskaya 13’ (synonym: ‘Zolotonosha 13’; abbreviated ‘USO-13’ or ‘YUSO-13’) was registered in 1986. It is a selected progeny from (‘YUSO-16’ x ‘Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6’) (Orlov et al. , 1987). ‘USO-13’ is submitted for registration in Austria, probably by Saatbau Linz (I. Bocsa, pers. comm. , 1995). ‘Yuzhnosozrevayushchaya Odnodomnaya 14’ (abbreviated: ‘YUSO-14’ or ‘JSO-14’) was registered in 1980.
It is a further selection from ‘YUSO-1’, which again is a cross progeny from (‘JUS-6’ x ‘Odnodomnaya Bernburga’). The dioecious parent ‘JUS-6’ was selected from (‘Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya’ x ‘dwarf Northern Russian hemp’). ‘Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya’ is originally selected from Italian hemp. ‘Odnodomnaja Bernburga’ is a monoecious cultivar which was originally produced in Germany in the 1940s at the Akademie der Landwirtschaftwissenschaften in Bernburg under the name ‘Bernburger einhausigen’ (Hoffmann, 1961). ‘YUSO-16’ or ‘JSO-16′ was registered in 1980, it is selected from the French cv. Fibrimon 56. YUSO-31’ or ‘JSO-31’ was registered in 1987. It was selected from the crossing (‘Glukhovskaja 10’ x ‘YUSO-1’). The parental population ‘Glukhovskaja 10’ is a selection from the central Ukrainian Novgorod-Seversk landrace. The ancestry of ‘YUSO-1’ is described above under ‘YUSO-14’. Apart from the previous cultivars, the landrace ‘Ermakovskaya Mestnaya’ seems to be cultivated at a significant scale in Siberia. It belongs to the CentralRussian maturity group. It is not clear whether it really is a landrace in the strict sense that it is maintained only through mass-selection by local farmers, but its fibre content is indeed low (Bocsa, pers. omm. , 1995). Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 71 Creative hemp breeding is still continued in the Ukraine and Russia. For example the cv. Zolotonosha 15 (‘USO-15’) was developed this year by family group selection among the cross-progeny from (‘USO-11 x ‘USO-13’) (J. Masura, pers. comm. , 1995). Italian cultivars The EU list of cultivars of agricultural crops includes three Italian hemp cultivars: ‘Carmagnola’, ‘CS’ and ‘Fibranova’ which are commercially represented by the Istituto Sperimentale per le Colture Industriali, Via di Corticella 133, 40129 Bologna; Fax: +39 51 374857.
These cultivars have been practically unavailable for a few decades. Recently the Instituto Sperimentale per le Colture Industriali has started to multiply again ‘Carmagnola’ and ‘Fibranova’ (G. Grassi, pers. comm. , 1995). Legal obstacles, however, seem to obstruct the commercial distribution of seed. So far, small samples of these cultivars are available for research purposes only. Two additional Italian cvs. , ‘Eletta Campana’ and ‘Superfibra’, are listed by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) on the schemes for the varietal certification of seed moving in international trade.
They are said to be distributed by the Istituto di Agronomia Generale e Coltivazione Erbacee Universita degli Studi, 80055 Porticci-Napoli, but they are not really available. The general unavailability of Italian cultivars is probably due to legal reasons. Hemp cultivation is prohibited in Italy as long as there isn’t a cultivar with a morphological marker which is genetically linked to low THC-content (pers. comm. , Ranalli, 1994, via I. Bocsa). A research program aiming at such a solution seems to have been activated in 1994 (G. Grassi, pers. comm. , 1995). Carmagnola’ is a Northern Italian landrace (Allavena, 1967). ‘CS’ or ‘Carmagnola Selezionata’ is dioecious and selected in the early 1960s from ‘Carmagnola’ (Allavena, 1967). ‘Fibranova’ is a dioecious cultivar, selected in the 1950s from the progeny of ‘Bredemann Eletta’ x ‘Carmagnola’ (Allavena, 1961). The parent ‘Bredemann Eletta’ (or ‘Bredemann Elite’) which was received from the German Max-Planck-Institut, is one of Bredemann’s high fibre selections obtained from Northern and/or Central Russian hemp strains, as were used in the breeding of ‘Fibrimon’ and ‘Bialobrzeskie’. Eletta Campana’ (dioecious) resulted from a cross between the Carmagnola landrace and high fibre strains from German origin, most likely ‘Fibridia’ or again one of the Bredemann selections. No information was found on the pedigree of ‘Superfibra’. Cultivars from ex-Yugoslavia Seven dioecious hemp cultivars were registered in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Among them were five of foreign origin: ‘Kompolti’, ‘Kompolti Sargaszaru’, ‘Kompolti Hybrid TC’ and ‘Uniko B’ (Hungarian), and ‘Fibranova’ (Italian) which are treated elsewhere in this article. Two registered domestic cultivars were ‘Flajsmanova’ and ‘Novosadska konoplja’ (J.
Spanring, pers, comm. , 1995). Presently hemp production is organized mostly in the present Yugoslavia (Serbia). Also in Croatia there may be some cultivation, the other republics have no significant hemp production. The crop is mainly grown for textile production. In the last decade, for this purpose, the imported hybrids ‘Kompolti Hybrid TC’ and ‘Uniko B’ were used. Until 5 to 10 years ago the improved cultivar Fibranova especially was used for small scale birdseed production (J. Berenji, pers. comm. , 1995). In the present Yugoslavia there is a tendency to replace gradually the imported cultivars by domestic ones. Novosadska konoplja’ is the only available registered domestic cultivar. Large scale seed production has been resumed in 1995. The yield of certified seed is intended to cover 40% of the textile hemp area (1,000 ha) which is planned for 1996. Breeding activities at the Institute of Field Crops and Vegetables (Novi Sad) are aimed at new domestic cultivars for the future (J. Berenji, pers. comm. , 1995) ‘Novosadska konoplja’ is an improved selection from ‘Flajsmanova’ which is the same as ‘Fleischmann hemp’ (from Italian origin, see under Hungarian cultivars).
It was bred in the 1950s, but included in the former Federal cultivar register only since 1989. ‘Novosadska konoplja’ is maintained and commercialized by Dr. Berenji, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, 21470 Backi Petrovac, Yugoslavia; Fax: +381 21 780 198. Seed prices charged to the (almost) single customer, the domestic hemp industry who distributes to contracted farmers, are 3. 5-3. 7 DM/kg (ca US $2. 50/kg). Small amounts of seed are sold to individual farmers at 4-5 DM/kg (ca US $ 2. 80-3. 50) for birdseed production (only 1-2% of the total hemp area).
In Slovenia the seven cultivars from the Federal register are proposed for registration in 1996. Some selections from indigenous landraces are presently under study at the Biotechnical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). They were selected for seed as well as fibre production and received tentative names as ‘Rudnik’ and ‘Pesnica’. Some of these materials may be released as cultivars in the future (J. Spanring, pers. comm. , 1995). c c Spanish cultivars The EU hemp cultivar list includes ‘Delta-405’ and ‘Delta-Llosa’ from Spain.
Breeder and owner is the specialty pulp manufacturer Celulosa de Levante SA, C/Tuset 8-10, 08006 Barcelona, Spain; Fax: +34 93 2906126. ‘Delta-405’ and ‘Delta Llosa’ have been grown for pulp production by Celulosa de Levante until 1992, nowadays they use French cultivars for this purpose (R. Ripol, pers. comm. , 1995). References on the two Spanish cultivars could not be traced. In spite of enquiries addressed to ‘Celulosa’ the breeding histories have not been elucidated. Evidently, ‘Delta-405’ and ‘Delta Llosa’ are not commercially available. Journal of the International Hemp Association, Volume 2, Number 2, 1995 72 Former Czechoslovakian cultivars The OECD schemes for the varietal certification of seed moving in international trade include the former Czechoslovakian cultivar Rastslaviska (synonym ‘Rastislavicke’). It is said to be represented by Slovosivo, Zahradnicka 21, 881 26 Bratislava, (the present) Slovakia. References to this cultivar were not found. According to Bocsa however (pers. comm. , 1995) it is (was) rather a landrace (of southern European type) than a cultivar. The former Czechoslovakia has never had its own hemp breeding. Until 1980 Hungarian cultivars were grown. Seed of ‘Rastslaviska’ is unavailable.
Future German cultivars At the end of 1995 a newly bred early-maturing German monoecious fibre and seed cultivar, called ‘Fasamo’, was submitted to the Bundessortenamt in Hannover for research aimed at registration and admittance in Germany (L. Loch, pers. comm. , 1995). The 40 years of breeding work was the private enterprise of Dr. Lothar Loch, Berlin. The commercial representative will be Norddeutsche Pflanzenzucht Hans-Georg Lembke KG, Hohenlieth, 24363 Holtsee, Germany. ‘Fasamo’ was obtained from a cross-progeny of ‘Schurigs’ hemp and ‘Bernburger einhausigen’, monoecious hemp bred in Bernburg in the 1940s (Hoffman 1961).
References Allavena, D. , 1961. Fibranova, nuova varieta di canapa ad alto contenuto di fibra. Sementi Elette 5: 34-44. Allavena, D. , 1967. CS, eine neue Sorte des zweihausigen Hanfes. Fibra 12: 17-24. Berlo, J. M. van, 1993. [Paper from hemp grown in the Netherlands. Final report of four years of research on hemp: Business Concept and foundations] [Dutch]. ATO-DLO, Wageningen, 222 pp. Bocsa, I. , 1954. [Results of heterosis breeding in hemp] [Hungarian]. Novenytermeles 3: 301-313. Bocsa, I. , 1969. Die Zuchtung einer hellstengeligen, sudlichen Hanfsorte. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenzuchtung 62: 231-240.
Bocsa, I. , 1995. Die Hanfzuchtung in Ungarn; Zielersetzungen, Methoden und Ergebnisse. in: nova-Institut (Hrsg. ): Bioresource hemp, Conference reader, second edition, Frankfurt 2. 3. -5. 3. 1995. Bredemann, G. , K. Garber, W. Huhnke ; R. von Sengbusch, 1961. Die Zuchtung von monozischen und diozischen, faserertragreichen Hanfsorten Fibrimon und Fibridia. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenzuchtung 46: 235-245. Dewey, L. H. 1913. Hemp. Yearbook of the USDA, 1913: 283-316. Dewey, L. H. 1927. Hemp varieties of improved type are result of selection. Yearbook of the USDA, 1927. : 358-361. Hoffmann, W. 1961. Hanf, Cannabis sativa. In H. Kappert ; W. Rudorf (eds. ). Handbuch der Pflanzenzuchtung, Band V, Paul Parey, BerlinHamburg, pp 204-261. Meijer, E. P. M. de, 1994. Diversity in Cannabis. Doctoral thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University. Orlov, N. M. , L. G. Orlova, A. D. Cherevan ; S. M. Lupach, [Hemp variety Zolotonoshkaya 13] [Russian] Len i Konoplya (1987) No. 3, 43. (Cited from Field Crop Abstr. 41: 2675). Small, E. , 1972. Interfertility and chromosomal uniformity in Cannabis. Canadian Journal of Botany 50: 1947-1949. Small, E. , P. Y. Jui ; L. P. Lefkovitch, 1976.
A numerical taxonomic analysis of Cannabis with special reference to species delimitation. Systematic Botany 1: 67-84. Agronomic characteristics Numerous references on agronomic performance, under various cultural treatments in various locations, are available for most of the above mentioned cultivars. However, as the expression of quantitative agronomic traits depends more or less strongly on the environment, such data cannot simply be pooled in one table. Twenty-four of the described fibre cultivars have been tested simultaneously in standardized trials in the context of the valuation of the CPRO Cannabis germplasm collection in Wageningen, the Netherlands. Some of the traits involved were: the pattern of phenological development (being related to potential stem and seed production); stem quality (characterized by the fractions of woody core, secondary bark fibre and primary bark fibre as well as by the length of woody core fibres); contents of the cannabinoids THC and CBD, and resistance to soil pathogens (root-knot nematodes). Brief results of this evaluation are summarized in Table 1 (for methods see: de Meijer, 1994).
Due to the extreme plasticity of some of the tested traits, especially phenological patterns and cannabinoid contents, the reported absolute values apply for the Netherlands only. However, assuming little interaction between cultivars and latitudes, one can expect that ranking orders of cultivars for most traits are fairly stable. Statements on the practical suitability of cultivars are omitted as, e. g. in the case of phenological pattern, stem and seed yield potential and stem quality, such judgements depend on the purpose for which cultivars are cultivated.
However, low THC content and a poor host-suitability to Meloidogyne (low values for GAL and EGG in Table 1), are unambiguously favourable. Corrections B. De Groot 1995. Hemp pulp and paper production: Paper from hemp woody core. Journal of the International Hemp Association 2(1): 31-34 “In my paper, the last sentence of the third column on page 33 should have been printed as: ‘Alkaline pulping, with sodium hydroxide only (without sulphide) is a potential pulping process for hemp woody core, and a basis for alkaline-oxygen and alkaline peroxide processes’.