Critically examine the reasons why the federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland came to an end in 1963? The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland came to an end in 1963 because there was the due to the declining demand of copper and foreign investments inflows. This led to the decline in the economy. The other factor that led to the end of the Federation is the anti-Federation pressure and opposition grew especially in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland present day Zambia and Malawi respectively.
The Federation ended by the end of the 1950s the economy of the Federation was not as vibrant as in the early years, as the world demand for copper declined and foreign investments inflows also fell. The Federation was had never been popular among Africans, especially those in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, whose opposition to it finally led to the collapse of the Federation.
There was opposition because of the fact that Africans remained marginalized yet the African population of the Federation was three million and the European population was three thousand. Africans were allocated only six representatives, two for each territory, in a Federal Legislative Assembly of thirty-five members. Moreover, the racist policies and practices persisted, with African workers continuing to be paid lower wages than their European counterparts and being barred from patronizing services faculties used by Europeans.
These and other grievances fuelled militant African nationalism in all three territories, leading to the rise of the Malawi Congress Party, the United National Independence Party of Northern Rhodesia and the National Democratic Party led by Kamuzu Banda, Kenneth Kaunda and Joshua Nkomo respectively, leading to the collapse of the Federation. The anti-Federation pressure mounted on the night of the eve of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. In Southern Rhodesia, right-wing elements also began to demand an end to the Federation, fearing that Ghana’s independence in 1957 might prompt the British to grant Southern Rhodesia independence.
In 1962 the Rhodesian Front took to power under the leadership of Ian Douglas Smith. The Federation collapsed and Northern Rhodesia became independent as Zambia while Nyasaland became independent as Malawi in 1963. Therefore the decline of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was as a result of the decreasing copper demands and foreign investments inflows. It was also due to opposition from the Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia. The racist policies and practices persisted with African workers being exploited and paid lower wages also contributed to the collapse of the federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.