Lab 1: HomeostasisBackground Information:Homeostasis is the existence of a stable environment in the body for survival. This process is always regulating bodily functions in order to keep the body in optimal condition. When conditions change a receptor senses and sends a message to a control center. The control center processes the information and sends an appropriate command to effectors. These effectors will respond to the command which will stimulate a positive or negative response.
A positive response will stimulate the increase of the change. For example if a person got a cut, the response from the effector would be to help stimulate clotting in the cut area. A negative response would attempt to cancel out the change, such as when the body becomes too hot or cold.
When this happens the effectors cause veins and arteries to expand or narrow in order to increase or decrease blood flow. The way homeostasis works is very similar to the way cruise control works. While traveling on a relatively normal road, the cruise control will keep the car at a certain speed and only use a certain amount of fuel. As the car travels on a hill, sensors notice and send the information to the engine. The engine will send a command to the necessary places to send more or less fuel into the engine in order to maintain speed.
One of the many functions of homeostasis is to regulate body temperature, usually measured by placing a thermometer in or on a part of the body and recording the degrees (Fahrenheit or Celsius). Each part of the body works the best at a certain temperature. The body’s temperature changes depending on where the measurement is taken and when, with variations of up to three degrees Fahrenheit.
This is because each part of the body does a different job, and requires a different environment in order to keep it functioning properly. Certain proteins and reactions also require extremely specific conditions, such as digestive proteins and enzymes. When a person has an illness or disease the body reacts to the invasion and makes any necessary changes.The body also controls heart rate, which is the amounts of heartbeats per minute. Depending on the situation the heart may beat faster or slower.
Doing an activity that requires a lot of energy or oxygen will cause the heart to beat faster to increase the speed of oxygen and energy transportation. Heart rate is also affected by the environment around and in the body, causing it to change from the accepted adult average of 60 to 100 beats per minute. If there is a virus, stimulant, or medication in the body it can cause the heart rate to increase. Also many environmental factors can change the heart rate of a person. When a person feels nervous, excited or terrified the heart beats faster to prepare for a fight or flight confrontation.
These reactions also cause a change in respiratory rate. Respiratory rate is the amount of breaths taken in a minute, which is for an average adult 16-18 breaths per minute. Its main function is to keep the levels of carbon dioxide low by exhaling carbon dioxide by breathing out.
Breathing is controlled by the diaphragm expanding and contracting at any given rate. This rate is changes for every individual person due to their unique physical and medical conditions. Any activity that causes an increase in carbon dioxide production will cause an increase in respiratory rate.In the upper atmosphere the levels of oxygen are very low, but as a person falls they are not using extremely large amounts of energy. However the falling would create a sense of terror and an adrenaline rush. The terror could cause people to scream, and yell, and the people seeking the adrenaline rush usually perform stunts. These actions and the experiences should affect the body causing a response from homeostasis, and a change in the person’s respiratory rate.
Homeostasis controls respiratory rate.Methods and Materials1) Find 15 willing, and healthy test subjects.2) Take their average respiratory rate two days before the experiment. 3) Explain all safety procedures and required knowledge before experiment. 4) Have certified instructor ensure all safety equipment (jumpsuit, boots, helmet, goggles, safety harness, parachute, emergency/reserve chute) is up to safety standards, and have subjects put them on properly. 5) Allow certified instructor to check subjects for any possible malfunctions.
6) Attach a respiratory rate monitor to the subjects in a safe manner. 7) Fly subjects five miles above sea level in an appropriate plane. 8) Allow subjects to jump out of plane with their equipment and monitor. 9) Subjects are allowed to enjoy their dive but required to land safely. 10) After subjects have landed collect their data from during the dive. 11) An hour after the dive collect their respiratory rates again. 12) Average each jumpers data for before, during and after the dive, individually.
13) Record data on data table.14) Repeat as wanted or needed.