Human Uneven distribution of water effects people’s lives,

Human health, agriculture and industrial developments are dependent on adequate supplies of suitable water and it is important for survival and development of any society. Economic development and standards of living have resulted the growing demand of water resources. Uneven distribution of water effects people’s lives, it causes the destruction of nature, and depletion of a valuable resource. figuresWater availability has become one of the major issue in recent years to cope with the ever growing population, industrialization and developments. According to recent studies it is predicted that water demand will rise by 2020 due to current water use efficiencies and it will be more extensive among poorer countries those having limited  resources and facing a challenging situation in population growth  like Africa, Middle East, and some parts of Asia.As water is one the essential element for human civilization and reservoirs and dams have served mankind as storage of water for thousands of years. There are almost 50000 dams across the world used for irrigation, hydropower and domestic purposes (Berga, 2008; Caston et al., 2009).Their productive lives have slowly decreased due to inappropriate land-use/cover activities, often lead to soil erosion which increases nutrients and sediments loading into stream and dam which ultimately effect storage capacities of dams. Thus, land-use and land cover changes play a vital role in the quality and quantity of water resources of a catchment .Furthermore, land-use and land cover changes also affect the climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and evapo-transpiration.Variation in climatic variables lead to significant change in water balance components like infiltration, runoff, evapo transpiration, soil moisture, surface and subsurface flow etc. (Lørup et al.,1998;Xu & Singh, 1998; McColl & Aggett, 2007).The potential effects on water resources due land use/cover change in the past few decades have been of great concern. Deforestation, rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, agricultural practices, climatic variability and socio-economic factors are the major factors contributing to land-use/cover changes and creating water pollution problems. (Bormann & Elfert, 2010; Mao & Cherkauer, 2009)