Humans work team roles, teamwork development stages, and

Humans as social beings always need others. Despite his inadequate living,
sufficient intelligence and sufficient physical strength, he will always need
an environment where he can share, support each other and work together. Humans
not only need religion, science, or entertainment or art, but also
togetherness. Everything is needed. Because with the religion of life more
focused, with life knowledge will be easier, with the art of living more
beautiful and with life together will be more berfaidah.


In a short definition, teamwork is a set of values, attitudes and behaviors
in a team. So it does not always consist of a group of people with the same
style, attitude, and work. The difference between teams is precisely the
potential that will make a team creative and innovative. To achieve a good
teamwork needs to grow a positive attitude among team members. Among other
habits to listen to each other so as to create good communication, provide
support to team members in need, and appreciate the contributions and
achievements obtained from each team member.

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A teamwork will be a decisive determinant of organizational travel.
Therefore it is necessary for good cooperation in carrying out responsibilities
in the organization. This paper will discuss the definition of teamwork, the
benefits and the function of teamwork, teamwork, teamwork and work group
differences, work team roles, teamwork development stages, and teamwork




A. Teamwork Definition

Teamwork can be interpreted as teamwork or cooperation, team work or
teamwork is a form of group work with complementary skills and committed to
achieving the agreed targets to achieve common goals effectively and
efficiently. It should be realized that teamwork is a fusion of personalities
who become one person to achieve common goals. The goal is not a personal goal,
not a team leader’s goal, nor is the goal of the most popular person on the

In a team that is needed is the willingness to hand-handed each other
accomplish the work. It could be that one person does not finish a job or is
not an expert in work A, but can be done by other team members. This is what
team work means, the load is shared for a common purpose.


Mutual understanding and support for each other is the key to success from
teamwork. Never ignore this understanding and support. Although there is an
interpersonal dispute, the team must immediately remove it first. If not life
in the team will obviously be disturbed, even in a team may come from different
division backgrounds that sometimes also hold disputes.


Therefore, it is important to realize that togetherness as a team member is
above all else.

Successful team intimacy is usually characterized by intimacy with each
other, loyal friends, and feel the same destiny. Team members like each other
and strive to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal
relationships are very important because this will be the basis for creating
openness and direct communication and support among fellow team members.


Teamwork can be defined as a collection of individuals who work together to
achieve a goal. The collection of individuals has clear rules and working
mechanisms and are interdependent with one another. Therefore a group of people
working in one room, even within a project, is not necessarily a teamwork.
Moreover, if the group is authoritarianly managed, there are factions within
it, and minimal interaction among group members. Some issues within the team:

1. The existence of tasks (tasks) and problems associated with the
implementation of work. This is often the main topic of concern to the team.

2. The process that occurs within the teamwork itself, such as how the
working mechanism or rules of a team as a work unit of the company, the process
of interaction in the team, and others


Advantages of team decision making:

1. Decisions made together will increase team motivation in the

2. Shared decisions will be more easily understood by the team than if only
rely on the decision of one person only


B. Teamwork Benefits and Functions


Working in the form of teams has the function of, among others, can change
attitudes, behaviors and personal values ??and can participate in disciplining
team members. In addition, working on teams can be used for decision making,


1. Benefits of Working in a Team

a) For Team Organizations

(1) Increasing work productivity.

(2) Improving the quality of work.

(3) Improve work mentality.

(4) Improve organizational progress.


b) For Team Members

(1) Responsibility for work is shared.

(2) As a medium of self-actualization.

(3) Stress or workload is reduced.


2. Purpose of Working in a Team

a) Unity of Purpose

Each team member has the same vision, mission and work program.

b) Efficiency

Each team member completes a task or job quickly, meticulously and
appropriately without waste and carelessness.

c) Effective

Each team member has clear goals, has adequate skills, is committed,
trusts, has good communication, has the ability to negotiate, and has the right


C. Teamwork Type

According to Daft (2000) the type of teamwork consists of six types,

1. Formal Team

The formal team is a team formed by the organization as part of a formal
organizational structure.

2. Vertical Team

The vertical team is a formal team consisting of a manager and a few of his
subordinates in the formal organization chain of command.

3. Horizontal Team

The horizontal team is a formal team consisting of several employees from
almost the same level of hierarchy but from different areas of expertise.

4. Team with Special Tasks

A team with a special task is a team formed outside of formal organization
to handle a project with special interests or creativity.

5. Independent Team

Independent Teami is a team of five to twenty workers with varying skills
undergoing job rotation to produce a complete product or service, and its
execution overseen by an elected member.

6. Troubleshooting Team

Problem-solving teams usually consist of five to twelve hourly employees
from the same department, where they meet to discuss how to improve the
quality, efficiency, and work environment.




C. Team Work
Effectiveness Model


The effectiveness
of the work team is based on two productive outcomes and personal satisfaction.
Satisfaction with respect to the team’s ability to meet the personal needs of
its members and then maintain their membership and commitment. Productive
outcomes relate to the quality and quantity of work as defined by the goals of
the team. Factors affecting team effectiveness are organizational context,
structure, strategy, cultural environment, and reward system. The important
team characters are team type, structure, and composition. The characteristics
of this team affect the team’s internal processes, which then affect results
and satisfaction. Leaders must understand and manage levels of development,
cohesiveness, norms, and conflicts in order to build effective teams. Here are
the characteristics of an effective team:


1. The same

If all
members of the team are rowing in the same direction, then the rowing vessel
will be faster to the destination, than if there are members of the team rowing
in different directions, opposite, or not growing at all due to confusion in
which direction to row. So make sure that the team has a goal and all your team
members know exactly what goals they want to achieve together, so they are sure
which direction to row.


2. High enthusiasm

will row faster if they have high enthusiasm. High enthusiasm can be generated
if working conditions are also fun: team members are not afraid to express
their opinions, they are also given the opportunity to show their skills by
being themselves, so that their contribution can also be optimal.


3. Clear
roles and responsibilities

everyone wants to be a leader, then no one will be rowing. Conversely, if all
want to be a rower, there will be chaos because no one gives command to the
same time and rowing direction. Essentially, each team member must have clear
roles and responsibilities. The goal is to let them know what contribution they
can provide to support the achievement of a predetermined shared goal.



4. Effective

the process of achieving goals, there must be effective communication between
team members. The strategy: Do not assume. That is, if you are not sure all
team members know what should be a top priority to complete, do not assume, ask
them directly and provide the information they need. If you are not sure that
each team member knows how to do or accomplish a task, do not assume they know,
but inform or point to them how to do it. Communications also need to be done periodically
for monitoring purposes (eg: how far the task has been completed) and
correcting (eg, if there are errors that need to be fixed in completing the
assigned task).


5. Conflict

In achieving
the goal there may be conflicts to be faced. But this conflict should not be
the source of team destruction. Conversely, this well-managed conflict can be a
powerful weapon to see one problem from different aspects so that new ways, new
innovations, or changes that are necessary to move faster toward the goal. In
case of conflict, do not ignore or avoid. Conflict that is not handled directly
will be like a cancer that undermines the team spirit. So, the existing
conflict needs to be controlled.


6. Shared

there are overly dominant team members, so that everything is done on their
own, or vice versa, if there are too many unemployed team members, then there
must be irregularities in the team that will eventually make the team
ineffective. Thus, each member of the team needs to be given the opportunity to
become a “leader”, showing “his power” in the areas of
their respective expertise and responsibilities. So they feel responsible for
the success of achieving common goals.


7. Expertise

Imagine a
choir with members having just one kind of voice: soprano only, tenor only,
alto course, or bass only. Of course the resulting sound will be monotonous.
Compare with the choir that has members with different types of sounds
(soprano, alto, tenor and bass). The resulting chorus will surely be more


the work team. A team of members with a variety of mutually supportive skills
will more easily work together to achieve goals. These different skills can
support each other so that the work becomes easier and faster to complete. Team
members with different skills can also expand each other’s perspective and
enrich their respective appreciation skills. Each member who has successfully
done what he or she is responsible for, or has made a positive contribution to the
team’s profits, deserves appreciation. Of course the appreciation given with
sincerity will feel more impact. Appreciation can increase the spirit of the
team members concerned to continue to excel. Appreciation should not be given
in the form of money. “I really appreciate your sincerity helping
customers choose our most appropriate product for him,” is a simple form
of appreciation of sincere words. Many other forms of appreciation can be
given, for example: promotions, bonuses in various forms (family tours using
transportation facilities and corporate villas, scholarships for children).
Positive attitudes and thoughts. By using sunglasses, the world you see will be
more dim. By using green glasses, the world also looks green. Similarly with
“glasses” attitude and positive thoughts, the world around you will
look positive. The difficulty will seem easier to overcome, because difficulty
is not a problem to be avoided, but a challenge that must be addressed.
Positive attitudes and thoughts are the primary capital of a team.



How can a
team know how close they are to a goal, if they do not take a moment to do an
evaluation? Evaluations made periodically during the process of achieving the
goal is still ongoing can help detect early deviations that occur, so that it
can be repaired immediately. Evaluation can also be done not just for
correction, but to find a better way. Evaluations can be done in various ways:
observation, customer research, employee research, interviews, self-evaluation,
evaluation of incoming customer complaints, or simply opinion polls at



D. The Role
of the Working Team


The role of
the team in general is to use their unique abilities and skills that are free
from academic learning (eg, coordination, creativity, communicative ability).
The nine teams that must be fulfilled are:

Creator-innovator (creator-innovator)

People who
have a high imagination both in initiating ideas or concepts, with independent
characteristics, self-employed, way and work style apart, timing according to
their own taste.

2. Explorers

People in
this group love to take new ideas and fight for cases, find resources to
promote their ideas. The weaknesses of people in this group: not always patient
in controlling skills to ensure ideas are acted upon in detail.

Appraiser-developer (assessor-developer)

in this group have strong analytical skills, best if they are given the
opportunity to evaluate and analyze before a decision is made.

Thrust-organizer (Thruster-organizer)

in this group like to devise operating procedures to turn ideas into reality
and resolve affairs, they set goals, enforce plans, organize people, and
enforce systems to ensure compliance with deadlines.


in this group are concerned about outcomes, their role focuses on timelines and
ensures that all commitments are acted upon. They are proud of the output on a
regular basis and according to standards.

Inspectors (controller-inspector)

in this group take great care of enforcement and care for enforcement and
strengthen rules and procedures. They test the details and make sure to avoid
the inaccuracy, they check all the facts and numbers, they want everything
complete and perfect.

7. The

are important, because they give the team the ability. they will defend and
fight for the sake of the team against outsiders.

Reporter-adviser (reporter-adviser)

in this group listen well, and tend not to emphasize their point of view to
others. They tend to get information before making a decision.

9. Linker

This role
overlaps with others, this role can be played by previous roles. Scouts try to
understand all views, they as coordinators and integrators, they do not like
extremists, they try to foster cooperation among all team members, they combine
team members’ contributions and activities even though there may be




E. Stage
Teamwork Development

There are
four stages of team development:


undevelopment stage is the stage most often found in an organization. One
feature of this stage is:

a) Seen a
group of people do a task but they do not agree on how they should work.
Examples include meetings or more frequent queues of ideas rather than
discussions. Real ideas are constructive, they do not say. They are afraid that
the ‘idea’ will upset the balance of the organization.

b) Does not
involve individual feelings because it is considered inappropriate to talk
about other people’s feelings openly. An example is that everyone is busy with
their respective duties and bosses who make almost any decision. So the wheel
of the organization rolls according to the rules and procedures of his
superiors. Keep in mind here that many ineffective teams show the above
characteristics, and usually occur if the boss has the wisdom, energy and time
to make all decisions. This is not a true group collaboration, because in this
way the strength that is in the team is not utilized so that it is more focused
on the leader.



This stage
begins when the team is seriously starting to review the operational methods
that have been in effect so far. In the Experimenting phase, the team is
willing to experiment and test. They dare to face various possibilities by
entering the unknown.


At this
stage of development, issues are addressed and discussed more openly and
consider the broader possibilities before making a decision. For example, a
personal matter is openly discussed, the feelings of the individual being
considered and resolved thoroughly.

At this
stage even though the team has become more open and has the potential to be
more effective, it is still lacking to be called an effective team that
generates profit.



successfully solving interpersonal problems in stage 2, the team begins to have
confidence, openness and trust to try how it works. Usually the team will choose
how to work more systematic or bermetode. Rigid rules and work are changed with
newly agreed rules, where each member has a role to achieve. While
interpersonal relationships have become more intimate, they are aware of the
importance of the basic rules and workings that the team will use.


The concrete
evidence of this stage is the way to reach a decision, that is, the clarity of
the objectives of the activity or task, the goal setting, the collection of
required information, the willingness to think about the possibilities of the
team, the detailed planning of what to do, return the work and use it as a
basis for improving the workings in the future. Better interpersonal
relationships at stage 2 are maintained, but they establish the ground rules
and workings that the team will use.


4. Mature

knowing the explanation from stage 3, then compiled the basis for the formation
of a mature team. Openness, caring and enhancing personal relationships at
stage 2 and the systematic approach of stage 3 are the basic capital for a
truly mature team.

becomes the main thing, because every need has a different working procedure.
Someone is no longer worried about maintaining their position. The team
recognizes the type of leadership needed to trust each other, be honest, open
and leaders recognize the need to involve members.

trust, openness, honesty, cooperation and confrontation as well as periodic
review of the work, become a team lifestyle. The team will always be willing to
help other teams who have difficulty or who have not reached their stage. But
more than that, this team is a fun and rewarding place.


In Working Team

Michael West
explains, there are two dimensions of the function of the team, the task that
must be carried by the team and social factors that affect how its members feel
the team as a social unit. The task that must be carried by the team is to run
all service programs in accordance with good organizational rules, where in
every work task there is always a goal, strategy, implementation, monitoring
and evaluation. All will be effective if done in a work team. But the work team
is a social unit that affects teamwork. In other words, within the team there
is a unique and compact social interaction.

The team
consists of a collection of individuals who have different emotional, social,
and various human needs, which makes the team as a whole can be helpful or even
frustrating. This is because the team not only gather and run the task of the
organization, but there is an important and need to get attention, namely the
social relationships in their togetherness as a work team. An intimate and open
interpersonal relationship to work with one heart, one mind and one will, will
help the team work effectively. Four effective team dimensions:


1. Personal

a. Effective
teams have a deep commitment with each other.

b. All teams
share the anthusiasm.

c. Everyone
longs to contribute to achieve a common goal.


Relational Dimension

a. Effective
teams communicate openly and honestly.

b. They
collaborate with the willingness to complement each other in order to achieve
common goals.

c. They
manage the conflict wisely.


3. Strategic

a. Effective
teams focus on the vision that is the driving force to move forward together.

b. They
agree and follow clear goals.


4. Process

a. Effective
teams are open to change.

b. They have
a strong awareness of the interconnectedness of all team members.



The function
of the team is to change attitudes, behaviors, and personal values ??and can
participate in disciplining team members. While the benefits of working in a
team that is to decision-making, negotiate, and negotiate. The purpose of
working in teams so that members have the same vision and mission in completing
tasks or jobs efficiently and effectively. The difference between the group and
the work team is that the group does not produce positive synergy that creates
a whole level of performance that is higher than the input amount while the
work team generates positive synergy through coordinated efforts in producing a
higher level of performance than the number of individual inputs.

teams have a wide range of general characteristics. When organizational
performance improves by team, management must ensure that its teams have
characteristics. In the Working Team must have Nine roles that is









9. Linker

West explains, there are two dimensions of the function of the team, the task
that must be carried by the team and social factors that affect how its members
feel the team as a social unit.