Evaluate/Compare and Contrast/Discuss/Examine models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies (22) Human beings actively process information and it is cognitive processes that guide behavior. These cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. One of the cognitive processes is memory. Many researchers and psychologies have proved that the mind can be studies scientifically by developing theories and using a number of scientific research methods.
This is demonstrated in theories and models of cognition which are discussed and continuously tested.The key characteristics of a good memory models are first, testability; second, simplicity; lastly, applicability. This essay looks at strength and limitation/similarities and differences/examine/discuss of models of one cognitive process, which is memory, with reference to research studies. Not all of developing models have such characteristics above. MSM by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) * Sensory memory, STM and LTM as permanent structural components of the memory system. * Rehearsal is a control process, which acts as permanent structural components of the memory system.
Rehearsal is a control process, which acts as a buffer between sensory memory and LTM, and helps the transfer of information to LTM. -Evidence * H. M. Case studies by Milner (1966) -Studies of brain-damaged, amnesic patients appear to support the STM-LTM distinction. While STM continues to function fairly normally, LTM functioning is impaired. * Peterson and Peterson (1959) -When rehearsal is prevented, information is very rapidly lost from STS. * Murdock (1962) -Primacy effect reflects recall from LTM, while the recency effect reflects recall from STM.
Together they comprise the serial position effect. Glazer and Cunitz (1966) -Strength * The model pioneered the new approach to memeory where humans are seen as information processors * The model’s conceptualization of memeory as multi-stored is supported by research * It has been possible to make predictions based on the mdoel and to design experiments * The overall model has been modified, i. e. : Working memory model of Baddeley and Hitch (1974) with their new version of STM. -Limitation * The model is very simplistic and it annot account for how interaction between the different stores takes place (e.
g. ow information from LTM may indicate what is important and relevant to pay attention to in sensory memory) * Research into the encoding of LTM has challenged the single-store version of LTM. It is now accepted that LTM contains several stores (e. g. semantic, episodic, procedural).
Level of Processing was developed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) Today, researchers used a variety of methods, including case studies, to support or refute cognitive models-or to propose new models. Application of one system to another system. Traditionally, cognitive researchers have favored the controlled laboratory experiment.Though the variables are controlled, the problem of this method is that it lacks artificiality. Today, researchers used a variety of other methods, including case studies.
Although most cognitive psychologist assumed them scientific, the supporting experimental tasks did not always resemble what people did in their daily lives. Moreover, sometimes new finding results in amendments to original models, or a model or theory is simply rejected because the empirical evidence does not support it anymore. However, good cognitive models of memory as exemplified above will process higher chance of successful result.