Research Proposal IMPACT OF DAIRY FARMING ON LIVELIHOOD OF LANDLESS WOMEN OF MEHSANA DISTRICT, GUJARAT. Submitted by Prakash . A. Panchal 201113005 M. Sc. (ICT-ARD) DA-IICT Submitted to Prof.
B. N. Hiremath DA-IICT? Impact of Dairy Farming on Livelihood of Landless Women of Mehsana District, Gujarat.
Introduction Dairy farming by landless women is emerging as an important livestock farming system characterized by rearing one or two low productive cattle.The landless dairy farmers mostly derive their income from working as agricultural labourers; they supplement their income with income generated from cattle rearing. The contribution of landless dairy farmers to the national milk production is quite substantial (Shukla and Brahmankar, 1996;De Leeuw et al.
, 1999; Ahuja et al. , 2000; Datta, 2002). Realizing the potentiality of dairy cattle in improving the economy of resource poor people, especially the landless, the government of India has recognized dairying as an instrument of socio-economic change.It is a boon for these families to own a cow or a buffalo (Candler and Kumar, 1998) and the ownership of this asset increases the confidence and self-worth of women (Ramaswamy et al.
, 1999), whose contribution to cattle rearing is well recognized (Dhaka et al. , 1995; Rangnekar et al. , 1993; Patel, 1993; Patel, 1998; Ahuja et al. , 2000; Bravo-Baumann, 2000; Rao, 2001; Ramkumar and Rao, 2001). However, the impact of dairy farming on livelihood of landless women is varies region wise due to certain price policy and subsidy provision to milk roducer. Some of landless women have sold their dairy cattle because of increase in cost of fodder and less price realization of milk. There are also large number of household whose livelihood is increased considerably after joining dairy farming. Mehsana district is second in Gujarat in milk production which comprises large number of small and landless women milk producer.
Empowerment of such large number of landless women milk producer is the goal of institutions e. g. village co-operative society, District union, state federation.Background Recognizing the importance of dairy farming in its substantial contribution to the agriculture economy and to the livelihoods of resource poor farmers/rural population, high priority is attached in several locations strengthening the milk marketing infrastructure, veterinary services for breed improvement and health care, extension support for capacity building of farmers, developing entrepreneurship, technical skills and knowledge on scientific dairy farming practices, etc.
everal programmes have been launched from time to time by State/Central Governments for promoting the sector, although the impact of such programmes varied widely. Impact of dairy farming on livelihood of landless women is been debated for longer period of time. Lots of landless women milk producer is withdrawing from dairy farming activity because of certain constraints e.
g. availability of fodder, fodder price, price of milk, heath of cattle, etc. It is one of the major challenges to retain the interest of small and landless women’s interest in dairy farming.
If dairy farming provide positive impact on livelihood assets of these landless women than it is sure that they will occupy dairy farming as means of earning their livelihood. It has been said that dairy farming is improving the livelihood f milk producer but does it holds true for landless women who rearing only one or two cattle with sort of resources. Theoretical Framework To study the impact of dairy farming on livelihood, I will use DFID livelihood framework.I will be studying changes in livelihood assets particularly human assets, physical assets, social assets and financial assets after taking dairy farming as means of earning livelihood.
Figure 1:DFID Sustainable Livelihood Framework Source : DFID 2001 : [email protected] gov. in A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities needed for a means of living (Scoones, 1998). A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks, and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base (DFID, 1999).
According to Scoones (1998), five key indicators are important for assessing sustainable livelihoods: 1) poverty reduction, 2) well-being and capabilities, 3) livelihood adaptation, 4) vulnerability and resilience, and5) natural resource base sustainability. As shown in Figure 1, The five capital framework of sustainable rural livelihood is adopted here. These include natural, financial, physical, social and human capital (Carney, 1998; Davies,1996; Soussan et al. ,2000). Sustainable rural livelihood is critically linked to the enhancement of these capitals.Improvement in all these capital could be a function of changes in financial, physical, natural, social and human capital. Improvement in each of these capitals is in turn dependent on various indicators. Financial capital is dependent on income, employment and savings; physical capital is dependent on household assets, road and transport, market and health care service; natural capital dependent on water, land, temperature; social capital dependent on social prestige, solve conflict and cooperation; and human capital is dependent on health, education, training, knowledge and skills.
However, out of this five capital I will be studying only four capital (Financial, physical, social and human capital) Establishment of dairy co-operative society at village level has helped milk producers in marketing their milk at better price at their door step. District dairy plant provides subsidy to financial weaker group of milk producer to keep their interest in dairying and promote milk production. District union also provides veterinary services at very nominal rate to milk producer to improve health status of their cattle.
State federation is revising price of milk produced by milk producer to cope up with inflation rate and make dairy farming profitable for milk producer. Institutions e. g. dairy co-operative society, district dairy plant and state federation are making effort to improve livelihood of milk producer. However there are some factors e.
g. fodder scarcity, fodder price, cattle health, etc which act as constraints for landless women milk producer. So one side we have institutions which are beneficial for milk producer and one side constraints which limit the growth of landless women milk producer.Research Objectives 1. To study the impact of dairy farming on livelihood of landless women of Mehsana district Research Questions 1. Does dairy farming provide sustainable livelihood to landless women? 2. If so, what are the indicators of measurement of livelihood assets? Methodology The study will be conducted in five villages of Mehsana district of Gujarat.
From each village twenty respondents will be selected randomly to make out total 100 samples. Respondent will be landless women rearing one or two dairy animals and who are involved in dairy farming for 5-10 years.To measure changes in livelihood assets, relevant data will be collected by designing questionnaire and conducting semi-structured interviews. Memory recall method will be used to collect data before involvement and after involvement in dairy farming. To study impact of dairy farming on livelihood assets (human assets, physical assets, social assets, financial assets) following indicator will be measured. Table 1: Livelihood assets and its indicator MeasureIndicator ( variable of study)Human assetsHeath status, Education, Nutrition, Knowledge and skill, food security Physical assetsSecure shelter and building, Household assets buildup, infrastructure Financial assetsIncome, saving Social assetsGroup formation The collected data will be analyzed using SPSS tool and then based on analysis conclusion will be drawn whether dairy farming is providing sustainable livelihood or not. Time-Schedule Table 2: Time- Schedule frame of task TaskTime (Days) Literature review5 Writing research proposal10 Approval of proposal5 Data collection30 Data analysis15 Writing research paper first draft10Final draft of research paper5 References Waldie, K; Ramkumar, S and Rao, S. V.
N : Dairy farming by landless women in southern states of India A study on improvement in Rural livelihood through Dairy farming. Retried from http://www. nird.
org. in/NIRD_Docs/ven_finrepo. pdf Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets framework. Retried from http://www. eldis. org/vfile/upload/1/document/0901/section2. pdf Kabir, M.
S; Hou, X; Akther, R; Wang, J and Wang, L. (March 2012). Impact of Small Entrepreneurship on Sustainable Livelihood Assets of Rural Poor Women in Bangladesh.International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4(3), 265-280 Ahuja, V. ; George, P. S. ; Ray, S.
; McCone, K. E. , Kurup, M. P.
G. ; Gandhi, V. ; Umali-Deininger, D; de Haan Cees. 2000.
Agricultural services and the poor: Case of livestock health and breeding services in India. Indian Institute ofManagement, Ahmedabad Datta, S. K. 2002. Strategic response to the challenges ahead in marketing of Indian dairy products Food and Dairy Industry Conference Souvenir.
Indian Dairy Association, Mumbai. De Leeuw P. N. ; Omore A. ; Staal S. ; and Thorpe W. 1999.
Dairy Production Systems in the Tropics” in Falvey, Land Chantalakhana, C (eds) Smallholderdairying in the tropics, ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya. Candler, W. and Kumar, N. 1998. India: The Dairy Revolution.
The impact of dairydevelopment in India and the World Bank’s Contribution. The World Bank,Washington, D. C.
Ramaswamy, Uma; Vasudevan, Bhanumathy; Prasad, Anuradha; Sethi, Gagan and Sengupta, Sulgana. 1999. Reconstructing Gender Towards Collaboration. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, New Delhi Bravo-Baumann Heidi. 2000.
Capitalisation of Experiences on Livestock projects and Gender.Working Document. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperaton. Ramkumar, S. ; and Rao S.
V. N. 2001. “Cattle rearing as a livelihood activity of the landless in Pondicherry”. in Ramkumar, S. ; Garforth, Chris; Rao, S. V.
N. ; and Waldie, Kevin (eds) Landless Livestock Farming: Problems and Prospects. Proceedings of the Workshop held at Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Services, Pondicherry Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods: a framework for analysis. IDS Working Paper 72, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton,UK.