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award of a degree by this or any other University.




…………………………………                     Date:



project proposal has been submitted for examination with my approval as
university supervisor

Eli Kangaru



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main idea in this research project is event attendees can view their upcoming
events in major cities in Kenya such as Nairobi, Mombasa, Eldoret and Kisumu,
can book hotel accommodation and travelling expenses and a calendar module
where they can easily check calendar dates for future upcoming events. With the
existing mobile event application a user can only search and view upcoming
events but cannot book travelling tickets, Hotel accommodation and a calendar
date to remind them of upcoming events. This research project is an improvement
of existing application where users can incorporate their event activities at
one point.

With the onset of ever evolving
technology, every
person needs a proper way of
managing their upcoming events, and managing it the right way saves time. This
mobile application is intended improve efficiency among users who attends major
events in major cities in Kenya simply because the application will reduce the
amount of time wasted in searching for travelling tickets either by road
transportation or air transportation and also booking accommodation. To implement the Event
Organizer Mobile Application, Java Language have to be used.












Table of
1.1        Background of the Study. 6
1.1.1      Historical
Background. 6
1.1.2      Theoretical
background. 6
1.1.3      Conceptual
Background. 7
1.1.4      Contextual
Background. 8
1.2 Statement of the
Problem.. 8
1.3 Objectives. 9
1.3.1 General Objective. 9
1.3.2 Specific Objectives. 9
1.4 Hypothesis. 9
1.5 Justification. 9
1.6 Scope of the Research. 9
2.1 Introduction. 11
2.2 Theoretical
review/Conceptual Framework. 11
2.3 Existing
Applications. 12
2.3.1 Eventbrite. 12
2.3.2 HeyLets. 12
2.3.3 Bandsintown. 12
2.3.4 All Events in City. 12
2.3.5 Connecter 12
2.4 Critique of existing
application. 13
2.5 Summary. 13
2.6 Research Gaps. 13
3.1 System development
methodology. 14
3.2 Analysis and Design
Tools. 15
3.2.1 System Analysis
Tools. 15
3.2.2 System Design Tools. 15
3.3 System Implementation
Tools/Techniques. 16
3.4 System Testing and Validation. 16
3.4.1 Unit Testing. 16
3.4.2 Incremental
integration testing. 16
3.4.3 Regression testing: 16














1.1  Background of the Study

Historical Background

“Humans are the most socially evolved
species on the planet. As such, we develop social interactions beyond our
family structures which can trigger the need for events” (Bladen et al. 2012,
7). Events have played an important part in society. The slightest excuse could
be regarded as a good celebration in most societies (Shone and Parry 2004, 2).
For example, in Europe, prior to the industrial revolution, routine daily
activities were tightly connected with festivals and carnivals (Shone and Parry
2004, 2). However, in this modern world, those historical forces are not as
significant as they used to be. As a matter of fact, these days, people have a
general tendency to celebrate events without necessarily seeing them in the
historical context such as Mother’s Day (Shone and Parry 2004, 3). One of the
reasons to transform the event from its traditional origins into modern origins
is that culture has changed, and these days, people live in a fast paced,
developing and global economy (Bladen et al. 2012, 11)

Theoretical background

In order to organize good events, event
management needs to be studied thoroughly. Regardless of various types of
events, it is crucial that event managers should be knowledgeable, qualified
and professional (Bladen et al. 2012, 21). Due to the thriving need of event
management, society has been demanding than ever because people need
professional management of events in many fields and sectors (Getz 2007, 2).


Conceptual Background

Event planning can be defined as the
coordination of all aspects of an event, including budgeting and program
development. Designing and producing an event is analogous to a live stage
production. Once the event begins, there is no turning back. There is no
guarantee of a successful outcome; however, event organizers can plan, prepare,
and be prepared for the unanticipated (Allen, 2000).

Contextual Background

Kenya, Individuals are still getting event invitation in form of letters or
through social media channels thus, event attendants need a proper way of
managing their upcoming events which will help them plan appropriately before
the consent of the events. I also noticed that most events does not book for
their members travelling expenses and reserving accommodation for its members
if the event is going to last for several weeks.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

current application being used to check for upcoming events is inefficient as
it leads to time wastage because users can go back again and book travelling
tickets and also accommodation which is not incorporated to the current

This current application also does not provide a
calendar where users can go to date and check for their upcoming events and
also add reminders. This calls for a need to develop an application which will
be efficient in managing all these activities surrounding events.

1.3 Objectives

1.3.1 General Objective

implement a mobile application where users can check for upcoming events, Book
travelling tickets as well as hotel accommodation, a calendar module to check
for dates and also add reminders.

Specific Objectives

To design a mobile application with better user interface.

develop a reminder module to remind event attendees for their future
highlighted events.

To book travelling tickets as well as hotel accommodation.


1.4 Hypothesis

If a mobile application is well designed, then a better user
interface will be achieved.

If reminder module exist, then should remind event attendees of
their future highlighted events.

If booking exists, then book travelling tickets as well as hotel

1.5 Justification

variety of Event Organizer mobile application exist in the market which can be
used to view upcoming events. But often these Event Organizer mobile application
do not always fulfill user requirements. For example, Most of Event Organizer
mobile application available in the market enables a user to view upcoming
events but does not have privileges where a user can book travelling tickets, hotel
room accommodation or add reminders.

The proposed Event Organizer mobile application is set to address the core aspects
surrounding events. It is not only designed to simplify the process but also to
provide an avenue of efficiency, effectiveness and reliability. Efficiency and
effectiveness is in regard to booking of traveling expenses and hotel room
accommodation, Reliability in terms of available upcoming
events and event reminders. This mobile application is going to benefit events
attendants majorly in Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu and Eldoret thus being the main
users and managing for them core aspects surrounding events.

1.6 Scope of the Research

proposed event organizer mobile application is intended to benefit residents in
major cities in Kenya. Therefore the scope of my research is Nairobi, Mombasa,
Kisumu and Eldoret.






















2.1 Introduction

This chapter provides information from
publications on topics related to the research problem. It examines what
various scholars and authors have said about the event organizer mobile
application. The chapter is divided into five main areas: Theoretical review/Conceptual
Framework, Existing Applications, Critique of existing
application, Summary and Research Gaps.

2.2 Theoretical review/Conceptual

With the advent of mobile technology
Kenya has risen steadily in terms of mobile phones usage. Every user wants to
manage all his day to day activities with mobile phones. These has given a
chance to mobile developers to try and develop mobile applications which will
help smartphones owners to access and manage all their daily activities with the
innovated android technology.

This section will present the main
contribution of (Aker and Mbiti 2010) and
(Kanellopoulus 2011) Aker states that “less
than 10 per cent of the population had mobile phone coverage in 1999,
increasing to over 60 per cent of the population in 2008”. In actual figures,
mobile phone subscribers multiplied from 16 million to 376 million between 2000
and 2008 (Aker 2011). In rural communities especially, it is very common to
informally share a mobile device between families, partners, friends or
neighbours (James and Versteeg 2007). This emphasizes the importance of access
over personal ownership, a vital component in determining the effectiveness of
mobile phone usage for the purposes of social and economic development.

This Section will present the main
contribution of (Euromonitor, 2010). “The term Smartphone refers to a
programmable mobile phone that offers advanced capabilities and features that
help individuals in their work and personal life”. It contains functions such
as instant messaging, downloading applications, utilizing information services
such as instant messaging, downloading applications, utilizing information
services such as WIFI and Global Positioning System(GPS) and entertainment.
With the popularity and functions offered in the phone, Smartphone have seen an
increase in terms of demand.

Event attendees in Kenya face a lot of
challenges to attending events, first they have a problem of being notified on
an event but they are not being notified of the transportation means there are
going to take or even book for them. And due to the fact that the event is
going to last for several weeks they need a place to accommodate them.

This section will present the main
contribution of (Allen, 2000), “Venues with no available parking create their
own set of problems. Hotels often give parking space priority to overnight
guests.” These situations require creative parking plans to ensure the smooth
arrival and departure of guests. Trolleys, limousines, buses, or other forms of
transportation can be used to transport attendees from an alternate parking
site. Other events occurring in the community may compete with a planned event
for hotel and venue space, as well as the availability of transportation for
attendees. Thus not every event attendees in Kenya owns a vehicle this calls
for a need to develop an event mobile application to help event attendees’ book
travelling tickets. Most event planners only book hotel accommodation to their
guests but not all event attendees this calls for an event mobile application
that will help event attendees to book hotel accommodation as well.

ICT plays a large role in our day-to-day
lives, addressing challenges facing Kenyans in general. Particular sectors such
as finance, health, education, agriculture and the government are quickly
embracing android application for dissemination of information, enhancement of
service delivery and to reach their customers more effectively and efficiently.

2.3 Existing Applications.

2.3.1 Eventbrite

Is a
platform that allows event organizers to plan promote, and sell tickets to
events and publish them across Facebook, twitter and other social-networking
tools directly from the sites interface. It also enables attendees to find and
purchase tickets to these experiences.

2.3.2 HeyLets

HeyLets is a community-driven events app
for discovering everything from great places to dine, to exciting nightclubs.
The app will ask you to select your interests to help personalize your
recommendations. You can even add places you haven’t visited yet to your wish
list so you can get alerts about what’s going on nearby. And since this one is
a very social app, even you can contribute back to the community by snapping
photos and leaving short descriptions for the places you visit.


2.3.3 Bandsintown

Bandsintown is another events app with a
focus on concerts. Use it to scan your library so that it can automatically
identify the artists you like and keep track of when they’re playing somewhere
near you.You can set up notifications for your favorites, see complete concert
listings for all cities and buy tickets from practically any ticket site right
through the app.


2.3.4 All Events in City

If you want to get a glimpse of
everything that’s happening in your city right now, browsing the All Events in
City app is a good way to do that. See a list of everything or browse by
category, select your interests to get personalized event recommendations, RSVP
to events you’re attending and even see where your friends are going.

2.3.5 Connecter

App was designed for students especially college students who want to attend
events and activities on campus. The students who are users can create private
and public events. Anyone
looking for events to attend can use the app to connect with people who share
similar interests and follow groups right through the app.

2.4 Critique
of existing application

The above application addresses critical
gaps in booking transportation and hotel accommodation for event attendees.
Also it doesn’t allow event attendees to highlight dates and notify them of their
future highlighted events

2.5 Summary

organizer is an application aimed at solving activities surrounding events that
is a user can book travelling tickets as well as accommodation. This
application combines all the concepts of the above related applications and
fill in all the gaps to activities surrounding events. It is an application
that can be used to view for upcoming events in Nairobi, Eldoret, Kisumu and

2.6 Research

The essence of this
review is to make known of some other research made in relevance to the project
topic. Many researchers have made some findings on how this problem can be
solved and achieve the objective of the subject. But during my study I noticed
that majority of the application allows users to search for nearby events but
many a times it does not allow users to manage activities surrounding the
events. This researched identified that users or event attendants need a proper
way of a managing activities surrounding events and with that in mind the
proposed application tries to solve the problem by allowing users to book
travelling and accommodation tickets effectively and efficiently.


















3.1 System development methodology

The proposed system
will be developed using waterfall model. Waterfall Model illustrates
the software development process in a linear sequential flow. Any phase in the
development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. In waterfall
model, the phases do not overlap.

The advantages of waterfall development are that it allows for
departmentalization and control. A schedule can be set with deadlines for each
stage of development and a product can proceed through the development process
model phases one by one.

Development moves from concept, through design, implementation, testing,
installation, troubleshooting, and ends up at operation and maintenance. Each
phase of development proceeds in strict order.






3.2 Analysis and Design Tools

System Analysis Tools

In this method, there was interaction between the researcher and
the event attendees. Interviews will be conducted with the university event
attendees to find out what difficulties they encountered when attending events.
These interviews were held to verify the information collected using the
questionnaires since there was room to search for further information during
the interview. Observation

researcher will also use observation as a data technique as he/she will be able
to learn how the whole event organizing is carried out.

System Design Tools Use case diagrams

representation of a user’s interaction with the system, depicting specification
and association relationships. A use case diagram can portray the different
types of users of a system and the various ways that they interact with the
system. This type of diagram is typically used in conjunction with the textual use case and will often be accompanied by other
types of diagrams as well. Sequence diagrams

A sequence diagram
is an interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and
in what order. It is a construct of a message
sequence chart. It shows object interactions arranged in time sequence.
It depicts the objects and classes involved
in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects
needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. Sequence diagrams are
typically associated with use case realizations in the Logical View of the
system under development. A sequence diagram shows, as parallel vertical lines (lifelines), different processes or
objects that live simultaneously, and, as horizontal arrows, the messages
exchanged between them, in the order in which they occur. This allows the
specification of simple runtime scenarios in a graphical manner.
Component diagrams

Component diagrams are particularly
useful with larger teams. The initial architectural modeling effort focuses on
identifying the initial architectural landscape for the system. UML component
diagrams are great for doing this as they enable you to model the high-level
software components, and more importantly the interfaces to those components.
Once the interfaces are defined, it makes it much easier to organize the
development effort between sub teams. There is need to evolve the interfaces to
reflect new requirements or changes to the design as the project progresses.

System Implementation Tools/Techniques

This is a
collection of all the hardware and software resources necessary for the development
of the proposed system.

Hardware Requirements: Core
i3 processor, 8GB RAM, 500GB Hard Disk.

Programming Language: Java

IDE: Android Studio

3.4 System Testing and Validation

verification and validation involves the reviews and walkthroughs that the
researcher will use. Testing and validation of the event organizer mobile
application will involve the following methodologies:

3.4.1 Unit Testing 

component/unit of the developed system will be tested separately, the user module.

3.4.2 Incremental integration testing 

testing of the system will be done as new functionality is added. The various
aspects of the system’s functionality will be made independent enough to work
separately before all parts of the system are completed.

3.4.3 Regression testing:

involves re-testing the system after fixes or modification are made on the
system. The developed system will be tested after new modifications are made





Aker, J. and Mbiti, I. (2010).
‘Mobile phones and development in Africa’. Journal of Economic Perspectives
24(3): 207-232.

Kanellopoulus, D. (2011). ‘How
can teleworking be pro-poor?’ Journal of Enterprise Information Management
24(1): 8-29.

James, J. and Versteeg, M.
(2007). ‘Mobile phones in Africa: How much do we really know?’ Social
Indicators Research 84(1): 117-126.

Euromonitor(2010), “Smartphone:
not just iphones, but a boomerang movement”, retrieved from Euromonitor
International database(accessed 16 April 2010).

Allen, J. (2000). Event planning:
The ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fundraising galas,
conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events. Etobicoke,
Ontario: John Wiley & Sons Canada Limited.

Shone & Parry. (2004).
Successful Event Management: A Practical Handbook. London: Thomson

Bladen, Charles., Kennel,l
James., Abson, Emma., and Wilde, Nick., (2012). Events Management: An
Introduction. Oxon: Routledge: Taylor and Francis Group

Getz. (2007). Event Studies:
Theory, research and policy for planned events. Great Britain: Elsevier