In recent old ages, direction accounting has become more of import for the modern companies. The direction accounting chiefly uses for step and describe the fiscal information, which to help the directors for set uping and be aftering the comprehensive organisational control to carry through the end of the organisation. Knowledge Management contains a scope of patterns used in organisations. The organisations are recognize, create, represent and administer the cognition for reuse, consciousness, larning and using to overall organisations. However, under the knowledge-based economic system, many companies did non mensurate this cognition to the direction accounting study. Besides, Intellectual capital besides did non be valuated. Marr and Schiuma ( 2001 ) quote that “ Intellectual capital is the group of cognition assets that are attributed to an organisation and most significantly contribute to an improved competitory place of this organisation by adding value to specify cardinal stakeholders. ” Nowadays, the rational capital and cognition direction are both importance by the organisations. The distinction between cognition direction and rational capital – cognition direction is a procedure environment within a company and rational capital covers whole operations of all organisations.
Overview Knowledge Management & A ; related to Strategic Management
KPMG conclude definition in 2001: “ Knowledge direction is a corporate phrase for a group of procedures and patterns used by organisations to increase their value by bettering and patterns used by organisations to increase their value by bettering the effectivity of the coevals and application of rational capital. ” The constituent of cognition direction has seven cognition procedure wheels. The procedure wheels include cognition coevals, function, sharing, reassigning, codification, hive awaying and application. First, cognition coevals contains knowledge creative activity and cognition acquisition. Knowledge creative activity means the new cognition develop by the employee within the company. For illustration, employ the staff possess originality to make new cognition and thoughts. Knowledge acquisition means buy or rent the cognition assets from 3rd parties whose is non be employed by the company. For illustration, the company paying advisers whose provide the suggestions to decide a job. Second, Knowledge function is placing the cognition assets of an organisation and specifying the methods of accessing them. Knowledge sharing means the cognition is allowed to administer another organisation. An organisations through the seminars, meetings, cyberspace or internal paperss to portion the cognition. For illustration, the company holds the workshops for the staff or employees within company for uncluttering to understand the new cognition. Knowledge reassigning agencies transfer the cognition between internal and among organisational cognition. Knowledge codification is formal the cognition make it into right for a peculiar codifications such as words, images. It is involves capturing cognition, externalisation, representation. Capturing cognition is matches the appropriate cognition to the related activity to accomplish the concern end. Externalization is altering the nature of cognition signifier an implicit to more definite one. Representation is clear to depict the cognition to suited set of information codifications. Knowledge storing is salvaging the cognition in company ready for any clip. Finally, Knowledge application use the cognition for use the appropriate activity for improve concern public presentation. This seven cognition procedure wheels to unite it which is become knowledge direction. Intellectual capital is separate to three different classs for human capital, relational ( or client ) capital and structural capital. “ Human capital encompasses all the employees with all the single and corporate cognition they have accumulated, their capablenesss, attitudes, capacities, behavior, experience, and emotions. ” ( Handbook of IC Management in Companies, 2007 ) Human capital includes competencies, relationships and values. The company employs the competency staff, non merely professional accomplishments and cognition. Meanwhile, employees possess societal competency, commercial competency and emotional competency. Employees relate to assorted sections within company, clients and providers. In this interaction, they possess the societal accomplishment to pass on with them. Employee ‘s loyal, able and responsible to construct up the value for concern successful.
“ Structural capital is the back uping substructure of human capital, being really the consequence of human capital activity of the yesteryear. ” ( Handbook of IC Management in Companies, 2007 ) Employees own their old experiences and make the invention for process of company smooth for manipulate. The procedures are more flexibleness to salvage a clip and quickly to obtain chance of concern. Existing civilizations are hard to alter, but effectual and efficiency innovate could be easy accepted by direction or stakeholders. The direction ‘s of import determination about promote the employee become leader. Good leading allocates the work to allow staff to complete and work out the jobs from the staff.
“ Customer capital encompasses the relationships with clients ( purchasers, clients and invitees ) and informations bases with relevant information on clients. ” ( Handbook of IC Management in Companies, 2007 ) Good relationship and communicating with company ‘s external stakeholders. The companies maintain the long-run relationship with clients. It needs to supply built-in services. For illustration, when clients rent the services, the company pays the attempt to supply the suggestions or thoughts. After-care service besides provide to clients. Enhancing the satisfaction and trueness hence increase the strategic of concern. For the providers, good relationship and communicating are every bit good important. The providers provide price reduction and good quality services. These conditions strengthen the similar competitory advantage of the market. The suggestion and thoughts interchange between the partnerships. The partnerships create the invention to better the concerted concern operation and extinguish the inauspicious effects.
Related to Balanced Scorecard
As above references which are related to balanced scorecard. Balanced scorecard is balance the weigh strategic of internal procedure, larning & A ; growing, fiscal and clients to accomplish the concern end and mission. For illustration, how to put up the mark or scheme to complete the occupation? How to better or reexamine the occupation? Besides, cause-and-effect relationships are linkage with balance scorecard. The organisation appropriate the indexs to mensurate the relate factors on each section of balanced scorecard may impact on a fiscal mark. “ Intellectual capital gives sharing of cognition legitimacy, establishes the worth of competency in a company and topographic points value on combined single capablenesss and experiences of colleagues. ” ( Bucklw, 1991 ) Using the cognition to Intellectual capital, which is lending the competency ability for achieve the concern strategic end of organisation. Some definitions contain intangible assets and rational belongings into rational capital. Organizations possess intangible assets such as good will. There is no market value to mensurate from the company, which is merely depending on expertness of adviser to measure the value. The relationship between rational capital and rational belongings, is finalize of rational capital which be converted and processed to interpret to rational belongings such as patent, licence, hallmark, trade names. For protect this rational belongings, the company use the alone legal right of usage for single rational belongings proprietor and user. This rational capital and direction cognition are adding strategic and value to company for heightening competitory advantage and place of the market.
Intellectual Capital for Insurance – Insurance Adviser
Ad and Promotion
Insurance and Service invention
Tangible Asset ( Knowledge, accomplishments, etc. )
Client ‘s acquisition
Number of Clients
Level of Service
+Net Gross saless
Economic Value Added
Net Present Value Totaliser
Intellectual capital accepts and develops bit by bit by assorted concerns such as insurance. Insurance adopts strategic direction and rational capital because they offer their services and merchandises to clients. With respect to insurance industry of Hong Kong, insurance companies have several different functions such as insurance agent, fiscal contriver, investing adviser and compulsory provident fund legal guardian. All of the services or merchandises initiated from professional individual. They possess sufficient cognition, experience, invention and motive of insurance to be after every services and merchandises. The insurance of Hong Kong exist a several big endeavors such as Manulife and China Life Insurance Company Ltd. Relational capital is portion of the rational capital and relevant to insurance. The insurance market is a competitory intense. The company sets up the scheme to better their direction and heighten their competitory advantage. The insurance sale volumes chiefly derived by insurance advisers whose are important. Insurance adviser trainee joined to insurance company which provides the formal preparation to increase their insurance cognition and communicating accomplishments for provide to clients in future. When insurance adviser trainee finished the indispensable preparation, they will be arranged to single squad to get down their work. Every squad leader holds the meetings in every forenoon of working yearss with insurance advisers. The meeting contexts include sale studies from insurance advisers, raise the specific job to decide, discourse the scheme planning, reappraisal and better their occupations. The senior member portions their experiences and instruct to junior member. This communications heighten the members of squad to larn more about cognition, accomplishments and proficient of insurance. As a consequence strengthen and set up their teamwork and squad spirit. Insurance company involves different classs such as insurance, wealth and plus direction merchandises and services. Insurance adviser besides serve fiscal contriver at the same time. They are direct contact, communicate and interaction with clients and they are clear to cognize the world demand and roll up the sentiments from clients. Harmonizing to client ‘s sentiments, insurance adviser plans the new strategic proposal of invention and present to direction. If they believe the proposal is feasible, the direction reflects to investor. The investors consider the return of investing and their outlooks. If they think the proposal will convey good return, they may lend the new proposal to develop the concern theoretical account. For illustration, Manulife encourage their advisers to suggest the suggestions and position, and supply invention capacity for advisers to be good at usage. Besides, the company provides about relevant instruction classs or instruction fund to back up their advisers to go on larning capacity. Harmonizing to client ‘s petition, insurance adviser designs the suited planning to them. After the client mark the contract, the accident will be happened on client at any clip, the client demand to on the spell contact with insurance adviser. Insurance company should supply equal preparation to them and insurance adviser is able and flexible to manage all events. From China Life Insurance Company Ltd fiscal study reference that “ The company focused on bettering the operating capableness of its bancassurance mercantile establishments by altering gross revenues patterns and bettering gross revenues techniques, and has accomplished important advancement in doing structural accommodations and increasing regular premiums from this gross revenues channel. ” The relationship between insurance adviser and the client, they need to see keeping the long-run relationship or life-time value with the clients of the value concatenation. About client ‘s satisfactions which are depend on insurance adviser who is how to supply and able present their appropriate services or merchandises to client. Besides, insurance adviser ‘s and professional and attitude are every bit good of import. The client and insurance adviser have adequate communicating which would back up to construct up client ‘s trust. The company does more betterment and reappraisal therefore raises the client ‘s satisfaction and trueness. The clients may supply their web to adviser to cognize. For illustration, the clients introduce their friends or member of household or other individual to insurance adviser. Thus the gross revenues volume of company would be increased and salvage the cost of advertisement. Besides, senior insurance adviser joins to insurance company. They possess are equal experiences and accomplishments to supply appropriate suggestion. Insurance company may salvage the clip and resources to set in to another staff. The costs of some services or merchandises are excessively expensive and over budget. The company instructs their insurance adviser through little insurance agent to lease the supply services. If outsourcing volume of these instances is big, the little insurance may offer the price reductions or supply excess benefits. The insurance company may be after the scheme programs for attract exist or new clients. For case, the big insurance company combine insurance agent to offer some publicities, so both company may raise the gross revenues and cut down the cost. The company insurance may authorise the insurance adviser to offers the price reduction for bing client to purchase another merchandises or services. Good public presentations of insurance adviser with respect to construct up image and repute of insurance company have positive impact. The general clients believe that good repute of insurance company really of import. It is represent the insurance companies have able to supply good service and quality. Above references, insurance adviser is built-in and strengthen competitory advantage of insurance company.
Restriction of Intellectual Capital
Insurance advisers are of import in the insurance company, but their alone cognition, accomplishments and experiences are belonging themselves. The advisers can vacate at any minute. When they leave the company and the company will lost these single resources. Insurance company need to set in excess resources and clip for re-training new insurance adviser. Besides, the clients are fulfilling single insurance adviser. Insurance adviser leaves the insurance company which would be lost some clients. Even if the client continues to stay the services which are follow-up by another adviser, the adviser may non pay more attempts to function the client as no committee income from this client except the client buys another service and increase sum to be services. This state of affairs will lose the client ‘s satisfaction and trueness.
Intellectual capital provide the competitory advantage and economic value added to organisations, but the organisations apply to the strategic direction accounting may look some restrictions and hinders. The organisations provide different preparation programmes to employees. However, the cost of developing programmes is high. Employees need to take the clip to analyze the preparation programmes. Therefore these preparation programmes must be effectual with respect to organisations. Besides, some little company can non afford these costs. Inventions and creativeness of development consume much money, times and work force to pattern and modify, the direction demand to measure the consequence whether valid or non. Organization civilizations are hard to alter. Tradition concern may non follow the new accomplishments and proficient. The relationship of company include internal and external. The big organisation is separate single section. The big graduated table of company is consequence the communicating and associating between the relationships of section. The trouble to efficiency communicates with clients, provider and investors. The company has good internal control to avoid the error or mistake to go on. The mistake or error would do worse and lost external relationship. Intellectual capital is difficult to mensurate the value because it include intangible plus or resources which is non reflect in fiscal statement. The market value of Intangible plus without clear and identify value. The organisation and market can non mensurate accurate sum. Besides, the investor merely happen the disbursal or cost but no any relevant income or gross. They may believe the organisation do non allow the resources to concern, which would do they do non lend to the company. The company should explicate or advert it in the fiscal study. The investors clear to cognize these points.
Intellectual capital and cognition are more important to modern organisations. Some companies pay more attending for it. The intangible assets are portion of plus of company. The company should non go forth their market value aside. These assets would supply and bring forth high market value to organisation. Besides, these would be performed to heighten the stockholder value, the grounds are rational capital and cognition to back up the direction to do their concern determinations. The organisation enables to manage and utilize with skill the resources and concentrate on it. Harmonizing to demand to step, allocate, develop and use to strategic direction. The company adopts the appropriate direction to capableness utilize the resources to construct up their effectual concern theoretical accounts. The employee, clients, providers and investors may hold some feedbacks and suggestions. The direction adopts some sentiments, so reviews the jobs or mistakes and improves it to beef up concern theoretical account. When the company invests the clip, cost and manpower to treat the process more smooth in the concern. This attempt would accomplish the strategic and concern end in the company. The organisation enhances the competitory advantage and place of market. Some restrictions and hinder would look, but the organisation overcome the job and implement it. The environment of concern would accomplish the effectual competitory market.