Important known as data.meaningful data usually say

Important terms in the computer:Raw facts are known as data.meaningful data usually say information that we give to the computer.those commands that tell the computer what to do, these commands are known as instructions.set of instructions are known as a program.those things in the computer we usually touch and feel like keyboard, mouse etc. are known as hardware. those things in the computer we do not touch but see in the form of data and information like programs are known as software.Types of computer Basically, two types of computers based on working:1. Analog computersAnalog computers handled or process information which is of a physical nature for example temperature pressure. these are based on the measuring of analog or equivalent physical value.2.Digital computersDigital computer process information essentially in binary or two-state form namely zero and one. whenever we talk and read about computer mostly refer to the digital type of electronic devices.Note: Hybrid computer is also a type of computer, this is the combination of Analog computers and Digital computers. These computer used by hospitals like ECG.Digital computer also divided into four categories based on size: # Microcomputer  (small size) People use desktop computers or personal computers but they do not know what type of digital computer, it is microcomputer because these computers are the least powerful, most widely used and fastest growing. They also called portable computers , they carry anywhere. It includes a microprocessor, memory, and minimal input/output (I/O) circuitry mounted on a single printed circuit board. Microcomputers became popular in the 1970s and 1980s with the arrival of increasingly powerful microprocessors.  Examples of microcomputers are PC, notebook, tablet computer etc.# Minicomputer  (medium size)Minicomputers smaller in size, faster, cheaper than mainframe computers. It was developed in the mid-1960s and designed to carry out some specific tasks, like engineering and computer-aided design (CAD) calculations. But today they are used as a server.Minicomputers are IBM-17, DEC PDP-11 etc.#Mainframe computer (large size)Mainframe (Meaning big iron ) computers have large internal memory storage and bigger in size and have better processing power compare to others computer like microcomputer, minicomputer, PC. It has the ability to handle a large amount of input and output so give special importance or value. They are mostly used for business work and a large amount of data processing. Their high stability and reliability enable these machines to run without a break in continuity for decades and more secure than others computers.Modern mainframes have the ability to run the different operating system at the same time. Examples: IBM-370, IBM-S/390, UNI VAC-1110.#Super computer (very larger size)Supercomputers are fastest, most expensive machines, high processing speed, speed measured in FLOPS(Floating Point Operation Per Second) and high level of computing performance. Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s. Supercomputers are used for higher calculation and intensive tasks such as weather-foresting, nuclear research, and scientific research laboratories. In November 2017, a general survey shows that world’s fastest computers mostly run Linux-based operating systems. CRAY-1 was the world’s first supercomputer introduced by Seymour R CRAY in 1976.Titan is the first supercomputer which is based on GPU System.Tianhe-2 is the world’s fastest supercomputer launched by China in 2013Siddhartha was the first computer developed in  India.History of computerThe creation of computer does not take one day or one month,  it takes a long period of time for the creation of computer. Abacus was the first mechanical calculating device invented by China in the 16th century. It is used for addition and subtraction. Analytical engine (1834-1837)was the first general purpose computer invented by Charles Babbage. It generally used for basic arithmetic operations.EDSAC (1946-1952) was the first computer which provides storage capacity invented by John von Neuman.IBM-650 was provided input /output units converting alphabetical and special characters to two-digit decimal code invented by IBM company in 1954. Generation of computerGeneration of computers means development and improvement in hardware and software, which make up an entire computer system. The computer generation divided into five categories.Each generation has own characteristic.1.First generation(1940-56)First generation computers using vacuum tubes as a switching device, data stored in magnetic drums and operating system based on batch. The speed of these generation computers were 333 microseconds. These generation computers were not used much more because of heavy power consumption and low reliability. Eckert and Mauchly built the first-generation computer in 1946.2.Second generation(1956-63)In this generation computer switching device a transistor, storage device was magnetic core technology and speed was 10 microseconds. These generation computer based on Time sharing system and Multi tasking system. Assembly language and high-level language were used. Computers were smaller in size, more reliable and highly efficient. Examples: IBM-1401 was most popular.3.Third generation(1964-71)ICs (integrated circuit) were used in this generation instead of the transistor. Storage device was magnetic core as primary medium and speed 100 nanosecond. It used real-time operating System. Computer can consume less power and highly reliable and language is high level such as FORTRAN, COBOL. Example: IBM-370.4.Fourth generation(1971-80)These generation computer based on large scale integrated (LST) circuit and microprocessor. Due to the microprocessor, price and size of the computer reduce and become less expensive, faster and data processing capacity was very high. Speed is 10 picosecond. The operating system was used network sharing and GUI interface. The language was Pascal, ADA, COBOL-74.5.Fifth  generation(1980-beyond)These generation computers were designed to think like human being. They have greater ability to store much more data ,faster processing speed ,better reliability and better performances. In this devices super layer scale integrated (SLSI) chips used. They will use fiber optics and voice recognition technique. These computers will changed future world.Characteristic of computer Every computer has five basic characteristics:#SpeedA computer is very fast device and performs so many tasks in just a few seconds. The speed of computer usually 2 to 4 Hz. A better powerful computer did 10 to 40 million arithmetic calculations in one second.#AccuracyThe accuracy of computer means how much accurate or correct value computer can calculate.The accuracy of computer high and degree of accuracy depend on upon its design. An error comes on the computer due to human activity. #Consistency These are never bored and never complains. They are ideal machines carry out repetitive and voluminous work, 24 hours a day and 365 days a year. These are highly consistent.# Storage capacityThey have greater storage capacity. Today, computer store huge amount of data and do not forget a piece of information. You can store an entire movie in CD and played on a computer when you with .#FlexiabilityA computer which developed by the human being can do multiple works such as play music, see movies, type letters, send faxes, etc but other machines like televisions, refrigerators, or type writes do only one thing for which they are designed.Basic Application of computer Computers are being used almost every walk of life.EducationScientific researchIndustryHealthBusiness applicationCommunicationBanks AccountingGames Medicine