Infinite and enlargement possibilities Essay

Facility layout design is a strategic issue and has a important and permanent impact on the efficiency of a fabrication system. An ideal installation layout provides the optimal relationship among end product, floor country and fabrication procedure. Facility layout facilitates the production procedure, minimizes material handling clip and cost, and allows flexibleness of operations makes optimal usage of the edifice, promotes effectual use of work force.

It is besides of import because it affects supervising and control, usage of infinite and enlargement possibilities.This paper presents a instance survey for betterment in layout in an car constituent fabrication company. The company has procedure layout in which similar machines are put together in a section. The first visit to the company revealed a assortment of jobs due to its improper layout.

For betterment in layout Graph Theory is used with the model of systematic layout planning methodological analysis. The cost analysis shows a economy of approximately 62.4 % per twelvemonth in stuff handling cost by this method. The proposed layout nevertheless requires batch of alterations in the bing layout. Sing the restraints of clip in execution one instance is developed along with cost analysis which is most poignant country of stuff handling in the works and can salvage immense money of the organisation and direction can implement this instance in less clip without set uping the other section.

The current work has merely practical informations of stuff handling cost, but for cost analysis needs some other cost such as equipment cost, rewards, wages, stock list transporting cost and operating cost. These costs are non supplying by the direction, that ‘s why analysis excluded these costs.Cardinal WORDS: Graph Theory, effectual work force, cost decrease, installation enhance and smooth operation.


RAW MATERIALDIE CastFINISH DIE CASTING STOREBROACHINGDrillingREAMINGTappingMillingQUALITY INSPECTIONDispatchThe company produces die casting constituents for car locks.

Raw stuff is purchased from outside. The natural stuff goes through different procedures to bring forth concluding merchandise. Figure 1 shows stuff flow chart for dice casting constituents production.

Figure 1: Flow chart for dice casting constituent


The company has procedure layout in which similar machines are put together in a section.



Natural stuff shopDie castingFinish dice projecting shopBroachingDrillingReamingTapingMillingFinish quality shop & A ; packagingTool & A ; careAdministrative blockFree infinite

Figure 2: Existing Layout of the Company


Most of constituent produced in the company follow the same way though the sections.

The flow of stuff is shown in figure 3

Figure 3: Material flow in the bing layout


In ward flow of stuffOut ward flow of stuff


The first review of the company exposed assorted jobs due to its unorganised layout. These jobs are as follows:Excess flow of stuff between sections.Excess production clip.Excess work in procedure.Improper section location

The present survey purposes:

To look into bing layout.

To suggest enhanced layout and several executable options for the direction to choose optimum from them.


In this subdivision the bing layout is studied in item to ease betterment. As a first measure the countries of the different sections were calculated. Table 1 shows planer countries ( in sq.

foot ) for different sections. These countries are unbroken same in the hereafter analysis.

Table 1: Planer country of the different sections

Department No.

Department NameLength * breadth( in foot )Entire AreaSquare footNatural stuff shop25*9225Die casting100*55 + ( 82*65 )10830Finish dice projecting shop30*641920Broaching24*14336Drilling30*24720Reaming12*24280Taping19*24456Milling9*24216Finish quality shop & A ; packaging26*24 + ( 25*16 ) + ( 17*25 )1449Tool & A ; care84*15 + ( 9*65 )1845Administrative block54*2513501234567812222264331445254664173989


FROMIn order to ease future analysis a block program is prepared for the bing layout. The block program is show in figure 4. The enumeration of the sections is unbroken same as shown earlier in figure 3. Departments 10 and 11 are the sections in which no stuff flow takes topographic point ( shown shaded in figure 4 ) .31210245678911

Figure 4: Block program of bing layout

The stuff flow is assumed to be rectilineal. The rectilinear and centroid to centroid distance between different sections was measured and shown in table 2. Department 10 and 11 are non shown in table 2 due to no stuff flow from -to – these sections.

The entire distance traveled by the stuff in the bing layout= 222+264+314+52+46+41+39+90= 1068 footTo find the flow of stuff between different sections the

Table 2: Distance between sections

production informations for fiscal twelvemonth 2010-2011 was considered. The monthly production in each of the sections is given in Table 3

Calendar month

Natural stuff shop

Die casting

Finish dice projecting shop






















605395.588395.528395.300395.287Entire Production ( in metric ton )5912.




Table 3: Annual production in the sections


3765123.7775119.5485117.709The stuff flow between different sections is shown in table 4.

As can be seen the flow reduces with the patterned advance of production. This is due to rejections of stuff at different phases of production. The contrary flows due to rejections nevertheless are non considered in the analysis. Department 10 and 11are non demo in table 4 due to no stuff flow to/ from these sections.

Table 4: From- to chart demoing stuff flow

Determining unit cost of stuff flow

For analysis, the unit cost of stuff flow is required. But this is non available with the company. So this cost is calculated indirectly as belowAssume entire fabrication cost Rs.

35000 per metric ton as given by company and stuff handling cost is 20 to 30 % of the entire fabrication cost per metric ton. For analysis taking 25 % stuff handling cost so material managing cost is 8750 per metric ton.Unit stuff handling cost


= Rs/tone/ft= 8.19 Rs/tone/ftThe unit stuff managing cost Rs 8.19 is calculated for one metric ton stuff for one foot distance traveled.

The unit stuff managing cost is considered to be fixed in future analysis. The entire stuff handling cost for the bing layout can be calculated byEntire stuff managing cost between section =WhereN is the figure of sections.I = 1, 2aˆ¦ N and J = 1, 2aˆ¦ Ns are the indices for sections.Cij is the stuff handling cost for a unit stuff for a unit distance between sections one and J.

fij is the stuff flow from section I to j determined from annual production marks.dij is the rectilineal distance between centroids of sections one and J

Material managing cost analysis


Department( From – to )




Material managing cost in old ages

fij* dij* Cij



1916352338-95117.706908.193772261Entire stuff handling cost46809067

Table 5: Material managing cost analysis


As shown from the old computation, the stuff handling cost for bing layout is excessively high. This needs to be reduced by doing alterations in the bing layout. As seen in the literature reappraisal there is a assortment of tools and techniques used for the intent. But due to its simpleness the graph theory for betterments in the bing layout is used. The inside informations of the graph theory are given below.


The basic thought of graphs was introduced in eighteenth century by the great Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler. He used graphs to work out the celebrated Konigsberg span job. In the graph theory attack, relationships ( flows ) among installations can be represented by a ( relationship ) graph in which vertices denote installations and borders denote being of flows or relationships between installations. A demand for being of a block layout fulfilling the relationships represented by a graph is that the graph be planar.

A graph is two-dimensional if it can be drawn in the plane and each border intersects no other borders and base on ballss through no other vertices.A typical graph theoretic heuristic for the layout job consists of the undermentioned stairss:

Measure I:

First construct an activity relationship chart ( REL chart ) . This can be done in audience with the production director and workers.

Measure II:

In this measure the REL chart is converted into the relationship diagram. For this, convert the evaluation in the signifier of line and take those sections foremost, which have “ A ” evaluation and so take other sections which have “ E ” evaluation. Follow same stairss, until all the braces of sections and evaluations are non satisfied. In the graph theory, relationship diagram is besides called as activity relationship graph.

Measure III:

In this measure develop a double graph from the planing machine graph.

There are two types of part in the graph, one is bounded and another is unbounded, the boundless outside part is called exterior and the part defined by a graph are referred to as faces. The boundless outside part is besides called exterior face. To build the dual of a planing machine graph, topographic point a double node in each stage of the planing machine graph whenever two faces portion an discharge in their common boundary articulation the nodes of the corresponding faces by an border.

The border for the double graph is shown with dotted line and faces of double graph shows the sections.

Measure IV:

The double graph gives merely the relation between comparative locations of the sections. Finally, convert the double graph into the block layout with the aid of REL chart and seek to fulfill maximal intimacy evaluation.The above stairss are implemented to the instance as follows:

Measure I: Construct an Activity Relationship Chart

Activity relationship chart give the information about the intimacy between the sections, in activity chart or REL chart all braces of relationships are evaluated and closeness evaluation ( A, E, I, O, U, and X ) is assigned to each brace.

Closeness evaluations represent an ordered penchant for “ intimacy ” . Specifically an “ Angstrom ” evaluation and “ Ten ” evaluation are considered to be most of import ranking and a layout must fulfill the “ A ” and “ Ten ” evaluations. An Tocopherol evaluation is the 2nd ranked and most, if non all “ E ” evaluation should be satisfied by layout.

An “ I ” evaluation is graded 3rd and they should be satisfied by the layout without giving “ A ” , “ Ten ” and “ E ” evaluations. “ O ” evaluation is ranked 4th and they should be satisfied by the layout without giving “ A ” , “ Ten ” , “ Tocopherol ” and “ I ” evaluation. “ U ” evaluation is impersonal evaluation and hence they can be ignored while planing the layout. With the aid of production director, REL chart was constructed which is shown in table 5.


Table 6: Activity relationship chart

Measure II: Concept Activity Relationship Diagram:

The intent of the activity relationship diagram is to particularly picture the relationship of the activities. In the relationship graph, vertices denote installations and borders denote being of flows or relationships between installations. It is besides called the planing machine graph. The planing machine graph for REL chart is given in figure 512345678910111AUracilUracilUracilUracilUracilUracilUracilUracilUracil2OxygenUracilUracilUracilUracilUracilUracilTocopherolUracil3AUracilUracilUracilUracilUracilUracilUracil4TocopherolIOxygenOxygenUracilOxygenUracil5TocopherolIOxygenUracilOxygenUracil6TocopherolIUracilOxygenUracil7TocopherolIOxygenUracil8IOxygenUracil9UracilOxygen10Uracil11

Figure 5: Relationship Diagram

Measure III: Double Graph:

Construction of a double graph is really of import measure in a layout design, in this measure convert the relationship diagram into double graph. Double graph for relationship diagram is shown in figure 6.

Figure 6: Double graph for proposed layout

Measure IV: Block Layout:

Finally for bring forthing the block layout transition of double graph into block layout is being carried out. New block layout for the company by the graph theory is show in figure 72134568911107

Figure 7: Block diagram of proposed layout of the company


For analysis of the proposed layout the figure of section and the countries of the different sections are unbroken same as that of the bing layout, so as to do the analysis easy but form has been changed to rectangular.

Table 7: Planer Area of the sections

The length and breadth of different sections along with the countries are given in Table 7Department No.

Department NameLength * breadthEntire AreaSquare footNatural stuff shop75*3225Die casting212.35*5110830Finish dice projecting shop80*241920Broaching24*14336Milling30*24720Reaming24*12280Taping24*19456Drilling24*9216Finish quality shop & A ; packaging63*231449Tool & A ; care61*30.21845Administrative block54*251350The stuff flow is assumed to be rectilineal. The distances between different sections were measured.

The centroid to centroid distances for different sections is show in table 8. Department 10 and 11 are non shown in table 8 due to no stuff flow to/ from these sections.







Table 8: From – to – chart for Distance travelled by stuff in proposed layout

Entire distance traveled by the stuff flow in new layout =120+103.6+47+22+21+15.5+32+36.5= 397.35 footS.No.

Department( From – to )




Material managing cost in old ages

fij* dij* Cij




541328.1913417298-95117.70636.58.191529861Entire stuff handling cost17592573

Table 9: The entire stuff handling cost for the new layout

Entire stuff managing cost of the new layout is Rs 17592573 per twelvemonthEntire economy in stuff handling cost =[ Material handling cost in bing layout – stuff managing cost in new layout ]= 46809067 – 17592573= 29216494Entire economy in stuff handling cost is Rs 29216494 per twelvemonthSalvaging as % of original cost = = 62.

4 %


( 1 ) On the footing of distance between different sectionsThe figure 8 shows the comparing between bing and proposed layout on the footing of distance between different sections. Figure 8: Comparison on the footing of distance between sections

( 2 ) On the footing of stuff handling cost

The figure 9 shows the comparing on the footing of stuff handling cost.

Figure 9: Comparison on the footing of stuff handling cost.

It is seen from the above cost analysis that the proposed layout is better than the bing layout and can salvage immense amounts of money. This nevertheless, requires batch of perturbations which may non be acceptable to the direction.

10. Decision

Facility planning is the agreement of work infinite which, in general term smoothes the manner to entree installations that have strong interactions. The chief concern with the works installation layout planning is to cut down the cost of stuffs managing as hapless stuffs managing can bring forth concern jobs.

To remain competitory in today ‘s market a company must cut down costs by be aftering for the hereafter. By the usage of Graph Theory we can cut down the cost of stuff managing up to 62.4 %


The beautiful, cloud nine and euphory that accompany the successful completion of any undertaking would non be complete without the look of grasp of simple virtuousnesss to the people who made it possible. So with fear, fear honor I acknowledge all those whose counsel and encouragement has made successful in weaving up this.

First and first, I would wish to thank my research usher. His attitude towards excellence and his enthusiasm has been beginning of changeless inspiration. I am thankful to him for all the advice, encouragement and support he has given me during the work with him.Last but non the least I would appreciate my parents, which made me, make this degree and Godhead at the top.