Infinite and enlargement possibilities Essay

Facility layout design is a strategic issue and has a important and permanent impact on the efficiency of a fabrication system. An ideal installation layout provides the optimal relationship among end product, floor country and fabrication procedure. Facility layout facilitates the production procedure, minimizes material handling clip and cost, and allows flexibleness of operations makes optimal usage of the edifice, promotes effectual use of work force. It is besides of import because it affects supervising and control, usage of infinite and enlargement possibilities.

This paper presents a instance survey for betterment in layout in an car constituent fabrication company. The company has procedure layout in which similar machines are put together in a section. The first visit to the company revealed a assortment of jobs due to its improper layout. For betterment in layout Graph Theory is used with the model of systematic layout planning methodological analysis. The cost analysis shows a economy of approximately 62.4 % per twelvemonth in stuff handling cost by this method. The proposed layout nevertheless requires batch of alterations in the bing layout. Sing the restraints of clip in execution one instance is developed along with cost analysis which is most poignant country of stuff handling in the works and can salvage immense money of the organisation and direction can implement this instance in less clip without set uping the other section.

The current work has merely practical informations of stuff handling cost, but for cost analysis needs some other cost such as equipment cost, rewards, wages, stock list transporting cost and operating cost. These costs are non supplying by the direction, that ‘s why analysis excluded these costs.

Cardinal WORDS: Graph Theory, effectual work force, cost decrease, installation enhance and smooth operation.

BASIC OPERATION OF Fabrication

RAW MATERIAL

DIE Cast

FINISH DIE CASTING STORE

BROACHING

Drilling

REAMING

Tapping

Milling

QUALITY INSPECTION

Dispatch

The company produces die casting constituents for car locks. Raw stuff is purchased from outside. The natural stuff goes through different procedures to bring forth concluding merchandise. Figure 1 shows stuff flow chart for dice casting constituents production.

Figure 1: Flow chart for dice casting constituent

EXISTING LAYOUT OF THE COMPANY

The company has procedure layout in which similar machines are put together in a section.

S.NO.

LEGEND Name

Natural stuff shop

Die casting

Finish dice projecting shop

Broaching

Drilling

Reaming

Taping

Milling

Finish quality shop & A ; packaging

Tool & A ; care

Administrative block

Free infinite

Figure 2: Existing Layout of the Company

MATERIAL FLOW IN THE EXISTING LAYOUT

Most of constituent produced in the company follow the same way though the sections. The flow of stuff is shown in figure 3

Figure 3: Material flow in the bing layout

Legend

In ward flow of stuff

Out ward flow of stuff

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

The first review of the company exposed assorted jobs due to its unorganised layout. These jobs are as follows:

Excess flow of stuff between sections.

Excess production clip.

Excess work in procedure.

Improper section location

The present survey purposes:

To look into bing layout.

To suggest enhanced layout and several executable options for the direction to choose optimum from them.

Analysis OF EXISTING LAYOUT

In this subdivision the bing layout is studied in item to ease betterment. As a first measure the countries of the different sections were calculated. Table 1 shows planer countries ( in sq. foot ) for different sections. These countries are unbroken same in the hereafter analysis.

Table 1: Planer country of the different sections

Department No.

Department Name

Length * breadth

( in foot )

Entire Area

Square foot

Natural stuff shop

25*9

225

Die casting

100*55 + ( 82*65 )

10830

Finish dice projecting shop

30*64

1920

Broaching

24*14

336

Drilling

30*24

720

Reaming

12*24

280

Taping

19*24

456

Milling

9*24

216

Finish quality shop & A ; packaging

26*24 + ( 25*16 ) + ( 17*25 )

1449

Tool & A ; care

84*15 + ( 9*65 )

1845

Administrative block

54*25

1350

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

222

2

264

3

314

4

52

5

46

6

41

7

39

8

9

To

FROMIn order to ease future analysis a block program is prepared for the bing layout. The block program is show in figure 4. The enumeration of the sections is unbroken same as shown earlier in figure 3. Departments 10 and 11 are the sections in which no stuff flow takes topographic point ( shown shaded in figure 4 ) .

3

1

2

10

2

4

5

6

7

8

9

11

Figure 4: Block program of bing layout

The stuff flow is assumed to be rectilineal. The rectilinear and centroid to centroid distance between different sections was measured and shown in table 2. Department 10 and 11 are non shown in table 2 due to no stuff flow from -to – these sections.

The entire distance traveled by the stuff in the bing layout

= 222+264+314+52+46+41+39+90

= 1068 foot

To find the flow of stuff between different sections the

Table 2: Distance between sections

production informations for fiscal twelvemonth 2010-2011 was considered. The monthly production in each of the sections is given in Table 3

Calendar month

Natural stuff shop

Die casting

Finish dice projecting shop

Broaching

Milling

Reaming

Taping

Drilling

April

438.984

328.288

326.637

250.765

249.345

249.123

248.299

246.465

May

556.005

547.493

546.628

540.262

539.647

538.857

538.231

537.978

Jun

501.079

498.765

498.241

487.548

487.142

486.812

486.123

487.986

July

411.833

406.028

404.893

404.271

403.921

403.382

402.842

402.521

August

480.153

470.260

460.837

459.956

459.521

459.195

458.953

458.645

September

595.238

464.957

462.638

462.254

461.356

461.124

460.963

460.689

October

215.433

198.848

197.621

197.290

196.900

196.421

196.094

195.986

November

267.012

240.168

240.008

239.698

239.401

239.198

238.762

238.590

December

1107.189

783.362

780.462

780.390

779.746

779.433

779.398

779.278

January

475.719

470.621

465.832

465.642

465.023

464.956

464.875

464.683

February

465.891

450.871

450.354

450.134

449.782

449.748

449.701

449.598

March

397.534

396.132

395.897

395.605

395.588

395.528

395.300

395.287

Entire Production ( in metric ton )

5912.074

5255.793

5230.048

5133.815

5127.372

5123.777

5119.541

5117.706

Table 3: Annual production in the sections

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

5912.07

2

5255.79

3

5230.04

4

5133.81

5

5127.37

6

5123.77

7

5119.54

8

5117.70

9

The stuff flow between different sections is shown in table 4. As can be seen the flow reduces with the patterned advance of production. This is due to rejections of stuff at different phases of production. The contrary flows due to rejections nevertheless are non considered in the analysis. Department 10 and 11are non demo in table 4 due to no stuff flow to/ from these sections.

Table 4: From- to chart demoing stuff flow

Determining unit cost of stuff flow

For analysis, the unit cost of stuff flow is required. But this is non available with the company. So this cost is calculated indirectly as below

Assume entire fabrication cost Rs. 35000 per metric ton as given by company and stuff handling cost is 20 to 30 % of the entire fabrication cost per metric ton. For analysis taking 25 % stuff handling cost so material managing cost is 8750 per metric ton.

Unit stuff handling cost

=

= Rs/tone/ft

= 8.19 Rs/tone/ft

The unit stuff managing cost Rs 8.19 is calculated for one metric ton stuff for one foot distance traveled. The unit stuff managing cost is considered to be fixed in future analysis. The entire stuff handling cost for the bing layout can be calculated by

Entire stuff managing cost between section =

Where

N is the figure of sections.

I = 1, 2aˆ¦ N and J = 1, 2aˆ¦ Ns are the indices for sections.

Cij is the stuff handling cost for a unit stuff for a unit distance between sections one and J.

fij is the stuff flow from section I to j determined from annual production marks.

dij is the rectilineal distance between centroids of sections one and J

Material managing cost analysis

S.No.

Department

( From – to )

fij

dij

Cij

Material managing cost in old ages

fij* dij* Cij

1-2

5912.074

222

8.19

10749215

2-3

5255.793

264

8.19

11363865

3-4

5230.048

314

8.19

13449905

4-5

5133.815

52

8.19

2186389

5-6

5127.372

46

8.19

1931686

6-7

5123.777

41

8.19

1720513

7-8

5119.541

39

8.19

1635233

8-9

5117.706

90

8.19

3772261

Entire stuff handling cost

46809067

Table 5: Material managing cost analysis

New LAYOUT DESIGN BY GRAPH THEORY

As shown from the old computation, the stuff handling cost for bing layout is excessively high. This needs to be reduced by doing alterations in the bing layout. As seen in the literature reappraisal there is a assortment of tools and techniques used for the intent. But due to its simpleness the graph theory for betterments in the bing layout is used. The inside informations of the graph theory are given below.

GRAPH THEORY

The basic thought of graphs was introduced in eighteenth century by the great Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler. He used graphs to work out the celebrated Konigsberg span job. In the graph theory attack, relationships ( flows ) among installations can be represented by a ( relationship ) graph in which vertices denote installations and borders denote being of flows or relationships between installations. A demand for being of a block layout fulfilling the relationships represented by a graph is that the graph be planar. A graph is two-dimensional if it can be drawn in the plane and each border intersects no other borders and base on ballss through no other vertices.

A typical graph theoretic heuristic for the layout job consists of the undermentioned stairss:

Measure I:

First construct an activity relationship chart ( REL chart ) . This can be done in audience with the production director and workers.

Measure II:

In this measure the REL chart is converted into the relationship diagram. For this, convert the evaluation in the signifier of line and take those sections foremost, which have “ A ” evaluation and so take other sections which have “ E ” evaluation. Follow same stairss, until all the braces of sections and evaluations are non satisfied. In the graph theory, relationship diagram is besides called as activity relationship graph.

Measure III:

In this measure develop a double graph from the planing machine graph. There are two types of part in the graph, one is bounded and another is unbounded, the boundless outside part is called exterior and the part defined by a graph are referred to as faces. The boundless outside part is besides called exterior face. To build the dual of a planing machine graph, topographic point a double node in each stage of the planing machine graph whenever two faces portion an discharge in their common boundary articulation the nodes of the corresponding faces by an border. The border for the double graph is shown with dotted line and faces of double graph shows the sections.

Measure IV:

The double graph gives merely the relation between comparative locations of the sections. Finally, convert the double graph into the block layout with the aid of REL chart and seek to fulfill maximal intimacy evaluation.

The above stairss are implemented to the instance as follows:

Measure I: Construct an Activity Relationship Chart

Activity relationship chart give the information about the intimacy between the sections, in activity chart or REL chart all braces of relationships are evaluated and closeness evaluation ( A, E, I, O, U, and X ) is assigned to each brace. Closeness evaluations represent an ordered penchant for “ intimacy ” . Specifically an “ Angstrom ” evaluation and “ Ten ” evaluation are considered to be most of import ranking and a layout must fulfill the “ A ” and “ Ten ” evaluations. An Tocopherol evaluation is the 2nd ranked and most, if non all “ E ” evaluation should be satisfied by layout. An “ I ” evaluation is graded 3rd and they should be satisfied by the layout without giving “ A ” , “ Ten ” and “ E ” evaluations. “ O ” evaluation is ranked 4th and they should be satisfied by the layout without giving “ A ” , “ Ten ” , “ Tocopherol ” and “ I ” evaluation. “ U ” evaluation is impersonal evaluation and hence they can be ignored while planing the layout. With the aid of production director, REL chart was constructed which is shown in table 5.6

Table 6: Activity relationship chart

Measure II: Concept Activity Relationship Diagram:

The intent of the activity relationship diagram is to particularly picture the relationship of the activities. In the relationship graph, vertices denote installations and borders denote being of flows or relationships between installations. It is besides called the planing machine graph. The planing machine graph for REL chart is given in figure 5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1

A

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

2

Oxygen

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Tocopherol

Uracil

3

A

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

Uracil

4

Tocopherol

I

Oxygen

Oxygen

Uracil

Oxygen

Uracil

5

Tocopherol

I

Oxygen

Uracil

Oxygen

Uracil

6

Tocopherol

I

Uracil

Oxygen

Uracil

7

Tocopherol

I

Oxygen

Uracil

8

I

Oxygen

Uracil

9

Uracil

Oxygen

10

Uracil

11

Figure 5: Relationship Diagram

Measure III: Double Graph:

Construction of a double graph is really of import measure in a layout design, in this measure convert the relationship diagram into double graph. Double graph for relationship diagram is shown in figure 6.

Figure 6: Double graph for proposed layout

Measure IV: Block Layout:

Finally for bring forthing the block layout transition of double graph into block layout is being carried out. New block layout for the company by the graph theory is show in figure 7

2

1

3

4

5

6

8

9

11

10

7

Figure 7: Block diagram of proposed layout of the company

Cost ANALYSIS FOR THE PROPOSED LAYOUT

For analysis of the proposed layout the figure of section and the countries of the different sections are unbroken same as that of the bing layout, so as to do the analysis easy but form has been changed to rectangular.

Table 7: Planer Area of the sections

The length and breadth of different sections along with the countries are given in Table 7

Department No.

Department Name

Length * breadth

Entire Area

Square foot

Natural stuff shop

75*3

225

Die casting

212.35*51

10830

Finish dice projecting shop

80*24

1920

Broaching

24*14

336

Milling

30*24

720

Reaming

24*12

280

Taping

24*19

456

Drilling

24*9

216

Finish quality shop & A ; packaging

63*23

1449

Tool & A ; care

61*30.2

1845

Administrative block

54*25

1350

The stuff flow is assumed to be rectilineal. The distances between different sections were measured. The centroid to centroid distances for different sections is show in table 8. Department 10 and 11 are non shown in table 8 due to no stuff flow to/ from these sections.

TO

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

0

120

67

114

136

157

172.5

140.5

104

2

0

103.6

56.6

40.6

61.6

77.1

78.1

113.6

From3

0

47

69

90

105.5

73.5

37

4

0

22

43

58.5

26.5

57

5

0

21

36.5

37.5

73

6

0

15.5

16.5

53

7

0

32

68.5

8

0

36.5

9

0

Table 8: From – to – chart for Distance travelled by stuff in proposed layout

Entire distance traveled by the stuff flow in new layout =120+103.6+47+22+21+15.5+32+36.5

= 397.35 foot

S.No.

Department

( From – to )

fij

dij

Cij

Material managing cost in old ages

fij* dij* Cij

1-2

5912.074

120

8.19

5791018

2-3

5255.793

103.6

8.19

4459456

3-4

5230.048

47

8.19

2013202

4-5

5133.815

22

8.19

925010

5-6

5127.372

21

8.19

881856

6-7

5123.777

15.5

8.19

650437

7-8

5119.541

32

8.19

1341729

8-9

5117.706

36.5

8.19

1529861

Entire stuff handling cost

17592573

Table 9: The entire stuff handling cost for the new layout

Entire stuff managing cost of the new layout is Rs 17592573 per twelvemonth

Entire economy in stuff handling cost =

[ Material handling cost in bing layout – stuff managing cost in new layout ]

= 46809067 – 17592573

= 29216494

Entire economy in stuff handling cost is Rs 29216494 per twelvemonth

Salvaging as % of original cost = = 62.4 %

9. COMPARISON BETWEEN EXISTING AND PROPOSED LAYOUT

( 1 ) On the footing of distance between different sections

The figure 8 shows the comparing between bing and proposed layout on the footing of distance between different sections. Figure 8: Comparison on the footing of distance between sections

( 2 ) On the footing of stuff handling cost

The figure 9 shows the comparing on the footing of stuff handling cost.

Figure 9: Comparison on the footing of stuff handling cost.

It is seen from the above cost analysis that the proposed layout is better than the bing layout and can salvage immense amounts of money. This nevertheless, requires batch of perturbations which may non be acceptable to the direction.

10. Decision

Facility planning is the agreement of work infinite which, in general term smoothes the manner to entree installations that have strong interactions. The chief concern with the works installation layout planning is to cut down the cost of stuffs managing as hapless stuffs managing can bring forth concern jobs. To remain competitory in today ‘s market a company must cut down costs by be aftering for the hereafter. By the usage of Graph Theory we can cut down the cost of stuff managing up to 62.4 %

11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The beautiful, cloud nine and euphory that accompany the successful completion of any undertaking would non be complete without the look of grasp of simple virtuousnesss to the people who made it possible. So with fear, fear honor I acknowledge all those whose counsel and encouragement has made successful in weaving up this.

First and first, I would wish to thank my research usher. His attitude towards excellence and his enthusiasm has been beginning of changeless inspiration. I am thankful to him for all the advice, encouragement and support he has given me during the work with him.

Last but non the least I would appreciate my parents, which made me, make this degree and Godhead at the top.