In League signed the historic Lucknow Pact and

In background of disappointment from 1909 Act and failure of moderates to make headway, ground hasbeen prepared for another movement. Further, First World War laid bare the claim of racial supremacyas colonial powers propagandized against each other to expose each other’s dirty past. War alsoincreased misery of the Indians and they were ready to join militant forces. Tilak was released from thejail in 1914 and was ready to assume a greater role, however, leadership of Congress was withmoderates and he had to launch a separate movement. Russian Revolution of 1917 provided additionaledge while the movement was still in progress.The two factions of Congress reunited in December 1915.Next year the Congress and the Muslim League signed the historic Lucknow Pact and decided to worktogether for representative government in the country.HOME RULE LEAGUE MOVEMENT (September 1916)After Tilak was released from jail in 1914, he again started his nationalist activities. He was in abid to gain entry into Congress. However his first such bid was thwarted by moderates lead byPherozshah Mehta.However after death of Pherozshah Mehta, opposition towards the Extremists weakened andthey were allowed to rejoin Congress in December 1915.Apparently no progress was made on the front of self-rule and many leaders were disappointedby the attitude of moderates.Dr. Annie Besant (along with George Arundale), who had gained enough experience in nationalactivism from her activities with her association with Theosophical Society, inspired by the Irishrebellion, started a Home Rule Movement in India in September 1916. She was supported by BW Wadia and C P Ramaswamy Aiyer in her efforts.Bal Gangadhar Tilak also launched another Home Rule Movement and wholeheartedlysupported this movement. Tilak took the lead and in 1916, he started the Home Rule LeagueMovement from Maharashtra. It was during Home Rule Movement that Tilak declared that –’Swaraj is My Birth Right and I will have it’.Gandhi was not involved in the movement as he had only arrived last year and was still testingthe waters in new political environment.The objective of movement was – ‘To enjoy Dominion status as enjoyed by other British Colonieslike – Australia, South Africa and New Zealand’.The movement spread rapidly and branches of the Rome Rule League were established all overIndia. While Tilak mainly focused in Maharashtra, Besant focused on rest of India. He joined theforces with Dr. Besant and persuaded the Muslim League to support this programme. (ThoughTilak and Besant had their own differences with each other).Many leaders like Jawahar Lal Nehru joined Home Rule League, but he mostly worked withAnnie Besant.Annie Besant was arrested in 1917, however this further stoked the fire of movement. Themovement has now even wider reaches and had now even penetrated villages. And many moreimportant leaders like C Y Chintamani, Motilal Nehru, Tej Bahadur Sapru stood by her andjoined the movement. S Subramania Aiyer renounced his knighthood in protest and joined themovement.Owing to her popularity due to the movement, she was chosen as the next – and the firstwoman – president of Congress in 1917.She was soon released following a conciliatory stance of government. Montague commented –’Shiva… cut his wife into 52 pieces only to discover that he has 52 wives. This is what happens tothe Government of India when it interns Mrs. Besant’.Decline of Home Rule Movement –? After release of Besant, moderates were pacified and the anger was calmed down? New Secretary of State Montague declared in Britain Parliament that Indians will begiven more role (unlike his predecessor Morley who denied any such possibility) inadministration. Pronouncement of Montegue was termed as ‘August Declaration’. Thisrendered demand for self-rule no more seditious and moderates were considerablypacified by this new announcement.? Rise of Gandhi and talks of Civil Disobedience diverted the national attention? Tilak went to US and this left a leadership void? Communal riots sparked in 1917-18Success of the movement –? However, the movement succeeded in attracting masses and marked a shift from eliteparticipation model of moderates.? Tilak and Besant’s effort revived Congress after Lucknow Pact of 1916.? They compelled the government to go for more reforms in form of Mont-Ford reformsof 1919.? Further, movement also prepared ground for Gandhian politics of mass movement.