In this paper, I will discuss theepidemiological triangle, the protozoan Giardia, and the helminths Loiasis.
TheEpidemiologic Triangle is a traditional model developed by scientist to studyinfectious diseases (CDC 2018). The triangle has three vertices that consist ofan agent, a host, and an environment. Giardia is microscopic parasite thatcauses a diarrhea illness known as giardiasis (CDC 2015).
Giardia is the mostcommon cause of parasitic gastrointestinal disease. Using the epidemiologic triangleas follows for Giardiasis:Agent- Giardia lamblia (also known as Giardiaintestinalis or Giardia duodenalis)A flagellate protozoan.Although the parasite can bespread by different ways, water is the main mode of transmission.Giardia can survive outsidethe body and in the environment for long periods of time since the parasite isprotected by an outer shell (CDC 2018).Can be found in the UnitedStates and around the world. Host- Humans and/or animals infected withGiardiaThe parasite lives in theintestines and is passed in feces. Anything that comes in contact with fecesfrom an infected human or animal can become contaminated with the Giardiaparasite.
Although habitation withthis microbe is within animals and humans these hosts may or may not know theyare infected with Giardia. Environment-Inadequate sanitation such as bathroom handles, changing tables, diaper pailsor toys that contain feces from an infected human or animal. Inadequatetreatment of drinking water (CDC 2018).Giardiasis can be spread byingesting uncooked food containing Giardia as well as swallowing water fromsources where Giardia live such as untreated or improperly treated streams,lakes, or wells.
Helpful tips onpreventing Giardia:Washing hands (MinnesotaDepartment of Health 2017).Avoid drinking recreationalwater (Minnesota Department of Health 2017).Avoid fecal exposure(Minnesota Department of Health 2017).Classified into phylaAschelminthes (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms) are two types ofhelminths (Nelson and Williams 2014). Whereas other invade organs includingblood, liver, lungs, subcutaneous tissue, and brain many of these organismslive only in the intestinal tract of a parasitized host (Nelson and Williams2014).
These parasites are also called large microscopic organisms. Loiasis isan infection caused by a parasitic worm known as Loa Loa (CDC 2015). Thisparasite is known as the African eye worm by most people (CDC 2015). Since thepresence of people with Loa Loa infection has limited programs to control oreliminate lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and onchocerciasis (riverblindness) whether a person has Loa Loa infection has been more important inAfrica. In Central and West Africa 29 million people are more at risk ofgetting Loiasis in these areas (CDC 2015).
Using the epidemiological triangleas follows for Loiasis: Agent:A parasitic worm known asLoa Loa that causes Loiasis infectionHost:A person is usually infectedafter being bitten by an infected deerfly of the genus Chrysaps.These flies are mostlyinfected after eating blood from an infected person.Environment:Although they have known tomigrate deeper into the body Loa Loa lives in subcutaneous tissues throughoutthe body.This parasite can be seenmigrating across the bridge of the nose or the subconjunctival tissue of theeye. (Nelson and Williams 2014).Helpful tips to prevent Loiasis:Wearing long sleeve shirtsand pants when traveling during the day where these flies live (CDC 2015).Using insect repellants (CDC2015).Avoid areas where theseflies are mostly found such as muddy, or shaded areas or around wood fires (CDC2015).