In Department of Health 2017).Avoid fecal exposure

In this paper, I will discuss the
epidemiological triangle, the protozoan Giardia, and the helminths Loiasis. The
Epidemiologic Triangle is a traditional model developed by scientist to study
infectious diseases (CDC 2018). The triangle has three vertices that consist of
an agent, a host, and an environment. Giardia is microscopic parasite that
causes a diarrhea illness known as giardiasis (CDC 2015). Giardia is the most
common cause of parasitic gastrointestinal disease. Using the epidemiologic triangle
as follows for Giardiasis:

Agent- Giardia lamblia (also known as Giardia
intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis)

A flagellate protozoan.Although the parasite can be
spread by different ways, water is the main mode of transmission.Giardia can survive outside
the body and in the environment for long periods of time since the parasite is
protected by an outer shell (CDC 2018).Can be found in the United
States and around the world.


Host- Humans and/or animals infected with

The parasite lives in the
intestines and is passed in feces. Anything that comes in contact with feces
from an infected human or animal can become contaminated with the Giardia
parasite.Although habitation with
this microbe is within animals and humans these hosts may or may not know they
are infected with Giardia.


Inadequate sanitation such as bathroom handles, changing tables, diaper pails
or toys that contain feces from an infected human or animal. Inadequate
treatment of drinking water (CDC 2018).

Giardiasis can be spread by
ingesting uncooked food containing Giardia as well as swallowing water from
sources where Giardia live such as untreated or improperly treated streams,
lakes, or wells.

Helpful tips on
preventing Giardia:

Washing hands (Minnesota
Department of Health 2017).Avoid drinking recreational
water (Minnesota Department of Health 2017).Avoid fecal exposure
(Minnesota Department of Health 2017).

Classified into phyla
Aschelminthes (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms) are two types of
helminths (Nelson and Williams 2014). Whereas other invade organs including
blood, liver, lungs, subcutaneous tissue, and brain many of these organisms
live only in the intestinal tract of a parasitized host (Nelson and Williams
2014). These parasites are also called large microscopic organisms. Loiasis is
an infection caused by a parasitic worm known as Loa Loa (CDC 2015). This
parasite is known as the African eye worm by most people (CDC 2015). Since the
presence of people with Loa Loa infection has limited programs to control or
eliminate lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and onchocerciasis (river
blindness) whether a person has Loa Loa infection has been more important in
Africa. In Central and West Africa 29 million people are more at risk of
getting Loiasis in these areas (CDC 2015). Using the epidemiological triangle
as follows for Loiasis:



A parasitic worm known as
Loa Loa that causes Loiasis infection


A person is usually infected
after being bitten by an infected deerfly of the genus Chrysaps.These flies are mostly
infected after eating blood from an infected person.


Although they have known to
migrate deeper into the body Loa Loa lives in subcutaneous tissues throughout
the body.This parasite can be seen
migrating across the bridge of the nose or the subconjunctival tissue of the
eye. (Nelson and Williams 2014).

Helpful tips to prevent Loiasis:

Wearing long sleeve shirts
and pants when traveling during the day where these flies live (CDC 2015).Using insect repellants (CDC
2015).Avoid areas where these
flies are mostly found such as muddy, or shaded areas or around wood fires (CDC