In 320 stores in eleven countries across

In this assignment I will analyse the impact of leaders and
managers on operations of Primark Stores


Worshipped by fashion fans and worth seekers alike Primark is
wide established because the destination store for maintaining with the most
recent appearance while not breaking the bank. Primark supply a various vary of
product, stocking everything from baby and youngsters, to women’s, men’s, home
ware, accessories, beauty product and confectionery.  Primark opened its 1st store in national
capital in 1969 below the name Penney and nowadays operates in over 320 stores
in eleven countries across Europe and America.

Primark may be a subsidiary among Associated British Foods
(ABF), and as a part of the ABF family we have a tendency to share its core
values: taking care of our folks, being smart neighbours, and fostering moral
business relationships. They conjointly share the group’s preponderating
principles in relevancy human rights, employment conditions, business practices
and engagement with suppliers and stakeholders.

As a global business with a world provide chain and a growing
retail base, they believe that business encompasses a responsibility to act and
trade ethically, which by doing therefore, it are often a force permanently.
Primark Ethics pages ought to facilitate to get plenty additional regarding however
seriously Primark takes its responsibilities. A link for this will be found
within the header of the positioning.


The management structure of a company clearly outlines the
roles of the highest management, that consists of the CEO and also the board,
the center management, that is created from the department heads and heads of
divisions, and also the lower management, that is comprised of the road
managers, team leaders and supervisors. this can be the essential management
structure employed by most organizations, however in line with Business Case
Studies, an organization’s shareholders are a section of the management
structure of a company.

The objectives of an organization verify its management
structure. firms like Primark that manufacture varied product, like better to
organize their company into subdivisions for varied product lines. the
corporate has organized its management structure in line with the varied
regions wherever it operates and in line with all the various product it

A management system may be a kind of structural procedure
among an organization that ensures every worker understands her
responsibilities which the organization will perform with efficiency. It
usually begins with the creation of associate degree structure chart that
outlines the hierarchy with the corporate and its departments. every position
must have a transparent definition of purpose and responsibility, that permits
the chart to stipulate the suitable supervisor for every role. In some cases,
every individual department may additionally produce its own chart.

The system conjointly must contain a transparent method for
the assignment of responsibilities and tasks, that permits the corporate to
completely determine the parties answerable for every side of its overall
method and any relevant tasks. The system ought to conjointly embrace an
everyday and consistent analysis method for all members of the organization,
which incorporates checks for individual performance in addition because the
effectivity of the system. Some management systems conjointly ought to embrace
tips on coaching for sure roles, which can embrace special certification for
managers or project leads.

Roles and characteristics
of a Manager in an Organisation

Managers perform the duties of a ceremonial and symbolic in
nature equivalent to hospitable official guests, sign language legal documents
etc as head of the organization or strategic business unit or department.
Duties of social roles embrace routine, involving very little serious
communication and fewer necessary choices. However, they’re necessary for the
graceful functioning of a company or department.

All managers have a leadership role. The manager, as
accountable of the organization / department, coordinates the work of others
and leads his subordinates. This role includes hiring, training, motivating and
disciplining staff. Formal authority and useful authority provides larger
potential power to exercise and obtain the items done. because the leader of
the organization or unit, the manager should perform the functions of
motivation, communication, encouraging concord and also the like. Further, he
should coordinate the activities of all his subordinates, that involves the
activity of liaison. This role conjointly needs the manager to act with
alternative managers outside the organization to secure favours and knowledge.
during this role, the manager represents his organization altogether matters of

Because of the network of contacts, the manager gets the
knowledge by scanning his atmosphere, subordinates, peers and superiors.

The manager seeks and receives info regarding internal and
external events to achieve understanding of the organization and its
atmosphere. Typically, this can be done through reading magazines and talking
with others to find out the changes within the public’s tastes, what
competitors is also coming up with, and also the like. Managers, principally
collect info in verbal type typically as gossip, hearsay, speculation and thru
grapevine channels. Manager disseminates the knowledge, he collects from
totally different sources and thru varied means that. He passes a number of the
privileged info on to his subordinates, peers and superiors WHO otherwise
haven’t any access to that. This info is gathered by him from his environments
and from his own equals within the organization.

The manager can play a vital role in diffusive the knowledge
to his subordinates, once they don’t have contact with each other. Managers
conjointly perform a advocator role once they represent the organization to
outsiders. Manager is needed to talk on behalf of the organization and transmit
info on organization’s arrange, policies and actions.

The manager should keep his superior sophisticated of each
development in his unit, WHO successively inform the insiders and outsiders.
administrators and shareholders should be told regarding the monetary
performance, customers should be told regarding the new product developments,
quality maintenance, officialdom regarding implementation of law etc.

The most necessary resource that a manager allocates to his
subordinates is his time. As a resource authority, managers ar answerable for
allocating human, physical and financial resources. consequently, fitting of a
time schedule for the completion of associate degree operation or approval of
expenditure on a project, etc., ar the functions that the managers perform
within the role of a resource authority.

The manager ought to have associate degree national trading
policy and permit the subordinates to specific their opinions and share their
experiences. This method helps each the manager and his subordinates in
creating effective choices. additionally, the manager ought to empower his
subordinates by relegating his authority and power.

Role and characteristics of a leader  in an organisation.

Required the least bit levels- Leadership may be a perform
that is vital the least bit levels of management. within the high level, it’s
necessary for obtaining co-operation in formulation of plans and policies.
within the middle and lower level, it’s needed for interpretation and execution
of plans and programmes framed by the highest management. Leadership are often
exercised through steerage and guidance of the subordinates at the time of
execution of plans.

Representative of the organization- a frontrunner, i.e., a
manager is claimed to be the representative of the enterprise. He should
represent the priority at seminars, conferences, general conferences, etc. His
role is to speak the explanation of the enterprise to outside public. he’s
conjointly representative of the own department that he leads.

Integrates and reconciles the non-public goals with structure
goals- a frontrunner through leadership traits helps in reconciling/
desegregation the non-public goals of the staff with the structure goals. he’s
making an attempt to co-ordinate the efforts of individuals towards a standard
purpose and thereby achieves objectives. {this will|this will|this could|this
may} be done given that he can influence and obtain willing co-operation and
urge to accomplish the objectives.

A frontrunner may be a manager and besides that he’s an
individual WHO entertains and invitations support and co-operation of
subordinates. This he will interact his temperament, intelligence, maturity and
skill which may give him positive result. during this regard, a frontrunner
should invite suggestions and if potential implement them into plans and
programmes of enterprise. This way, he will solicit full support of staff which
ends up in temperament to figure and thereby effectiveness in running of a

(www.managerment accessed on 06/12/17)

Leadership and management will have identical qualities,
however that is not perpetually the case. Leadership is regarding standing out,
whereas management is essentially functionary in nature. These needn’t be
reciprocally exclusive. Some theories of leadership, however, create it plain
that leadership isn’t management, and a manager isn’t a frontrunner however
simply a grip of functionary authority.


Leadership theories are attribute Theory, behavioral Theory,
Transactional Theory, Transformational Theory magnetic Theory

Trait theory

Napoleon declared that a military of rabbits commanded by a
lion may do higher than a military of lions commanded by a rabbit. Attribute
theory might be summed up by Napoleon’s read therein leadership is regarding
the characteristics of the person at the highest of the organisation. whether
or not that organisation is a military, a country, or associate degree
organisation. while leadership remains as Grint (2005:17) inform U.S.A., ‘and
primarily contested idea attribute theory remains a well-liked framework once
considering and finding out leaderships just because its basic premise of a
frontrunner being born instead of created or trained.

The primary approach that differentiates managers from
leaders has been known as the “great man” theory or, similarly, the “trait”
theory. In these cases, leadership are some things inborn; it’s associate
degree innate want to manage, to just accept responsibility and even ask for
glory through leadership. this type of person may be a born risk-taker and
refuses to measure the lifetime of mediocrity.

Behavioural Theory

This philosophy mostly identifies management with leadership
and suggests leaders ar created, not born. The context of this type of
leadership are often the character of the task, therein one person is healthier
educated in one space than the others or that the person chosen to guide is
well-liked and folks ar willing to follow his directives. Most approaches that
use the behavioral model assume a democratic approach to management, wherever
staff et al ar brought certain necessary choices, though this can be not
perpetually the case.

Transactional Theory

A transactional approach to management describes once rewards
ar accustomed inspire a team. the most issue is self-interest, which may ask
each the manager and also the employee, as they each look smart and ar rewarded
if the task goes in line with arrange. Conversely, penalty is employed once a
team member doesn’t complete the task set forth by the manager. this can be the
only, most functionary approach to management.

Transformational Theory

This is the other of transactional management, and it’s a
real leadership role therein it doesn’t rely upon paperwork however on the
non-public presence of the leader. This model seeks to inspire those below
authority. as an instance, the manager raises awareness regarding the
importance of the task at hand and evokes her team to succeed. This theory
seeks, most of all, to transcend self-interest and gentle a tightly integrated
team along to perform a task.

Charismatic Theory

The magnetic approach is leadership within the most powerful
sense and is one among the few models that doesn’t need a functionary equipment
to perform. magnetic leadership may be a radical style of transformational
leadership — folks finish of affection or relevance the leader. Rewards and
self-interest ar rejected here, and tasks ar completed as a result of the
magnetic presence motivates others to figure for a larger smart.

Management Theories

Management theories ar enforced to assist increase structure
productivity and repair quality. Not several managers use a singular theory or
idea once implementing methods within the work.

They ordinarily use a mix of the many theories, looking on
the work, purpose and men. Contingency theory, chaos theory and systems theory
ar well-liked management theories. Theory X and Y, that addresses management
methods for men motivation, is additionally enforced to assist increase
employee productivity.

Contingency Theory

This theory asserts that managers create choices supported
true at hand instead of a “one size fits all” technique. A manager
takes applicable action supported aspects most significant to the present
scenario. Managers in an exceedingly university might want to utilize a leadership
approach that features participation from staff, whereas a frontrunner within
the army might want to use associate degree autocratic approach.

However, Managers WHO perceive systems theory acknowledge
however totally different systems have an effect on a employee and the way a
employee affects the systems around them. A system is created from a range of
components that job along to realize a goal. Systems theory may be a broad
perspective that enables managers to look at patterns and events within the
work. This helps managers to coordinate programs to figure as a collective
whole for the general goal or mission of the organization instead of for
isolated departments.

Behavioural models of leader ship ar like attribute based
mostly approaches and, nonetheless they provide a totally totally different
perspective. This model is incredibly abundant targeted on the person. this
suggests that approach places the individual at the centre of any study and
encompasses a premise that leadership is regarding understanding the person
instead of true or context among that people notice themselves. So, during this
respect it’s just like the underpinning philosophy of attribute theory. Whereas
attribute theory might be summarized by a read that states leaders ar born and
not created, behavioral models suggests that leaders are often created, and
that they aren’t essentially born. this can be as a result of the main focus of
this set of theories is round the data, skills and associated behaviours
required for leadership instead of any innate characteristics of the person
being ascertained

If attribute theory sided with nature within the nature Vs
nurture dialogue therefore typically mentioned, then behavioral approaches take
the ‘nurture’ route. Another issue in reality in mind once considering this
model is that the majority of researchers (e.g. Mintzberg 1973; Katz 1955;
Adair1973) WHO support this read do therefore from a perspective that places
associate degree organisational context at the guts of their studies.

Individual leaders were studied mistreatment type of totally
different ways, however these studies were administered among giant
organisations- albeit varied ones equivalent to the army and also the Swedish
airline, AS.


Strength and weakness of different approaches to situations
within the work environment.

The approach in every model describes a way which will be
followed by a frontrunner to deliver associate degree organisational answer.
it’s not the leader’s temperament that produces the last word distinction between
success associate degreed failure-rather their skills in resolution the
tensions inherent in developing an organisation. this suggests that individual
staff will learn drawback determination techniques equivalent to Ishikawa
(Fishbone) Analysis and inventive thinking techniques equivalent to brain
storming. they’ll attend courses or be coached to develop sure organisationally
desired behaviour. So, in an exceedingly sense no matter the various
theoretical approaches to learning adopted, it’s taken as browse that people
will and do learn. This basic human ability are often exploited, and leadership
may be a set of trainable skills.

If associate degree organisation will outline what it means
that by leadership in skills terms (a vital assumption) then people among
business have a example against that they’ll be mapped and measured. thanks to
this alternative organisational activities equivalent to performance appraisal,
objective setting and leadership development, become inherently easier as
there’s model out there against that each the organisational and also the
individual leader will mirror themselves.

Leadership isn’t the domain of many singular people, however
that leadership is currently accessible to a way wider variety of candidates if
they need the motivation. The motivation of the leader is additionally key for
as Mumford (2000) observe there ar 3 characteristics that require to be
gift among a private for them to form the usually painful and lonely journey
that’s leadership. Initially, the individual should be willing to tackle
troublesome, difficult organisational issues (Mumford 2000:22). Second
while there is also disagreement over the definition of leadership, most would
agree that leaders exercise influence over followers then the potential leader
should be willing to exercise influence. Finally, in terms of this influence,
the leader ought to be actuated to demonstrate social commitment. this suggests
doing the proper issue for society’s long interest (refer case study FRED GOODWIN).


Behavioural models began to evolve thanks to discontentment
with the nice Man kind theories of leadership that ascribed fortunate
leadership to inheritable traits. the idea and hope were that with the proper
reasonably biological process procedures and processes in situ people might be
trained to become leaders. This belief was supported by the growing science and
theories investigation however human learn. while there was a disagreement over
this method leadership writers and lecturers have used the underpinning
philosophy that humans may learn to develop he behavioral and skills model.
Effective leadership became regarding what you probably did and not regarding
WHO you were.


An overview on totally different theories and approaches to


The Qualities or Traits approach make a case for that leaders
ar born, not made; leadership consists of sure inheritable temperament traits
or qualities. Whereas the useful or cluster approach is process leadership are
often learned and developed. Focuses on the accountabilities, responsibilities
and functions of the leader and also the nature of the cluster. Examines
however the leader’s behaviour affects and is stricken by the cluster of
followers. one among the key theories of the useful approach is Adair’s
Action-Centred Leadership. This approach focuses on what leaders do and also
the ought to balance the wants of the individual, the task and also the team.

Behavioural approaches, focuses on the behaviour of
individuals in leadership positions, the importance of leadership vogue and the
way it influences cluster performance.

Likert, William Blake|poet|painter} and mutton and Blake and
McCanse compared behavioral designs across 2 dimensions: concern for production
(relates to McGregor Theory X) and concern for folks (relates to McGregor
Theory Y).

Different forms of leadership focuses on leadership designs
and the way they impact those being semiconductor diode. The premise is that
subordinates ar additional possible to figure effectively for managers WHO
adopt a definite kind of leadership than others:

Lewin outlined 3 basic forms of leadership: autocratic (or
authoritarian), democratic, capitalistic vogue.

Belbin outlined 2 radiating forms of leadership: The Solo
Leader and also the Team Leader.

Tannenbaum and solon conferred a time of leadership designs
supported the degree of authority exercised by the manager and also the degree
of autonomy out there to followers in creating choices.
accessed on 07/12/17)

Different theories, associate degreed approaches to
leadership offers an insight into varied ideas that have emerged to assist
perceive the leadership development. every of those approaches have deserves
and disadvantages, and by examine every of them, leaders ar inspired to use
these ideas to mirror and form their own personal approach to a extremely
individualized subject. However, what’s sure is that merely pondering
leadership doesn’t facilitate a private become a frontrunner. There must be
action {and the|and therefore the|and conjointly the} text definitely tries to
encourage the reader to assume however conjointly to act and also the text
definitely tries to encourage the reader to assume however also to act when the