In in soma than the control group.

In their study, the
researchers found that the infants without FASD had an “inverted-U” shaped
development of the gray matter, while the FASD infants showed a linear decrease,
indicating that the volume of gray matter decreased over time 11. Low amounts
of normal gray and white matter tissue compartments and cerebellar volumes are
seen frequently, but low amounts of white or gray matter can generate brain
volume reductions.

Effects on the hippocampus                                                                                                            Along
with reduction in brain size and volume, prenatal alcohol causes damaging
effects on the formation of certain cells and structures in the hippocampus. In
the third trimester-equivalent, alcohol exposure increased the likelihood of
apoptosis in the hippocampus 12. Prenatal
ethanol exposure inhibited the dendritic arbor size in the hippocampus and
decreased the size of the hippocampal commissure  13. Also, exposure to alcohol reduced
the hippocampal volume and the amount of neurons in the hippocampus 14.  In the third trimester, moderate amounts of
alcohol had a significant impact of the overall structure of the hippocampus 14.
Researchers indicated that ethanol affected the hippocampus neurogenesis,
wiring of the neurons, increased the cases of apoptotic neuronal death, and
decreased the dendritic spine density 3. Due to reductions in neurons in the
neuronal regions, the distribution of number of apical spines was altered
between 0 and 50 ?m (control) and also 50 and 100 ?m (ethanol exposure) 15.  During dendritic development, ethanol
exposure caused larger increases in soma than the control group.  In this experiment, they observed
morphological development of neurons in three hippocampal sub-regions: CA1,
CA3, and DG 3. Their results reported that the soma or cell bodies of the CA3
and DG pyramids were smaller in the fetal alcohol group than the control group.
They also reported decreases in the dendritic field area , total length of dendrites,
number of branches in the dendrites, and average spine density in the pyramidal
CA neurons 3. If there were ethanol-reduced reductions in the CA1 of the
hippocampus, fewer spines will appear in this location 15. They also made a
correlation between maternal stress and fetal alcohol, which showed that high amounts
of stress diminish the development of dendritic arbor in hippocampal neurons.  When they treated cell cultures of the
with ethanol, there was a decrease in the length and number of dendrites. This
can be explained by the unfavorable interaction of ethanol with the fibroblast
growth factor  (bFGF), which affected the
extension of the nerve fibers. 3.  In this study, an interesting finding was
that there were quick recovery times from the harmful effects on the soma size,
and the fact that the dendritic spine density could induce developmental
retardation if it is recognized at birth 3.                              In another study,
the exposure to ethanol created some cases of an increased number of dendrites
per cell, but there was a small shift towards a smaller number of dendrites 5.
In the control group, development of dendrites was less than 1% in the cells,
and only 9% of the cells had one dendrite 5. In the group with 400 and 600
mg/dl of ethanol, more than 8% of the neurons did not develop dendrites, and only
16% and 18% of the cells had developed only one dendrite 5. Low amounts of
dendrites per cell and short individual dendrites caused a decrease in
dendritic arbor size, which is part of several processes that possibly interfere
with normal development and growth of dendrites. In the control cultures, 80%
of the cells obtained between zero and four processes that were less than 20 mm in length 5.
During this time, ethanol exposure increased the number of the processes in
each cell in a dose-dependent form. Around 80% of the neurons that were exposed
to 200, 400 and 600 mg/dl ethanol consisted of one to five, one to six, and two
to seven processes, respectively, which were less than 20 mm in length 5.
Their data indicated that ethanol increased the average number of processes per
cell that were about 20 mm in length all ethanol concentrations (200, 400 and 600 mg/dl) (Figure
4, 5).  Ethanol has the ability to
change the polarity of the cell by increasing the amount of minor processes
that are transforming into axons and decrease the amount of the minor processes
that transform into dendrites 5. With the results of this study, researchers
were hoping to determine whether ethanol had a strong