In August and September 1859, the populations of Parma,
Romagna, Tuscany, and Modena, voted towards annexation to Sardinia. The British
notified their message that they wouldn’t look over any actions between the
French and Austrians and to restore unwanted rulers into the central parts of the
Italian peninsula. By the terms of the Treaty of the Zurich, Austria keeps
possession of Venetia and has controlled most of Lombardy to France. As a
result, France moves the Lombardy cities, Peschiera and Mantua, to Sardinia. Cavour
was invited back to become prime minister in 1860. Cavour had signed a secret
agreement with Napoleon, giving over Nice and Savoy to France, French support is
given back as support. Cavour persuaded the parliament to proclaim the city of
Rome the capital of the kingdom, but he died shortly after, so he wasn’t able
to see the unification of Italy in 1870.
start, Cavour wasn’t aiming for a unification of Italy, but a strong Piedmont. Cavour
was a prime example of demonstrating a strong ideology during the unification
of Italy. As Alan Cassels states, “However,
his support came from a connubio (marriage) of conservatives and liberals, and
his following is best described as ‘the party of order. As his conduct at the
height of the struggle for Italian unity would demonstrate, he was no friend of
radicalism and democracy, and it goes without saying that his Realpolitik distanced him from Italy’s
idealistic liberals of 1848” (Cassels 70-71).
Cavour’s reputation as an Italian nationalist grew. It was at the
beginning that his newspaper, II Risorgimento, helped blast the Italian movement,
like Mazzini. Cavour also had different goals and methods than other politicians.
Cavour always believed that Italy should be ruled by a monarchy government,
with King Louis-Phillipe as their king, while Mazzini believed for a complete
unification of Italy. Cavour, Garibaldi, and Mazzini, three famous Italian
nationalists, played dynamic roles in the unification of Italy, Cavour as the
brains of the movement. Cavour made it clear that Italy needed foreign guidance
and support. He plotted Italian forces to help the British and French against
Russia during the Crimean War of 1854. From this contribution and for the
victory for both British and France, Cavour was given a reward, which was the diplomatic
victory of Cavour. He had intended to force Austria to wage war.