In proletariat, and class struggles to which

In his assertion, The Communist Manifesto, Marx specifically discusses class struggle
and the exploitation of one class by another, meaning when one class becomes
too powerful in comparison to another class and/or to the rest of society. To
explain the exploitation of one class by another, Marx uses the example of the
bourgeoisie and the proletariat; Marx addresses the wealthy, materialistic
capitalist class as ‘the bourgeoisie’ and the working class as ‘the
proletariat.’ For Marx, the materialistic capitalist class, labeled as the
‘bourgeoisie’, consisted of capitalists, manufacturers, bank-tellers, etc., who
owned the most important means of production. On the contrary, the working
class, known as the proletariat, consisting of those who sell their labour power
for a wage and/or salary, such as low-skilled factory workers, farmers, etc.,
were exploited by the bourgeoisie as they did not own any means of production.

For Marx, to understand capitalism or
other social systems, it is critical to understand class structure,
specifically of the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, and class struggles to
which they may face. In understanding class structure, Marx suggests that
classes are classified and organized by the relations of work and labour, and
private property and means of production. All of which, Marx claims that these
relations evidently influence the social relationships within a capitalist society.
Along with his previous description of the bourgeoisie, the materialistic
capitalist class, are the owners of the most important means of production
(‘capital’), to which purchases and exploits labour, in the process of creating
a profit and to accumulate capital. As for the owners of labor power, the
proletariat, whom do not own any private property, are often found to seek employment
of a capitalist-employer, in order to sustain an income and survive within a
society. In the process of creating a profit and accumulating/expanding
capital, wages must be kept relatively low; meaning the proletariat is
exploited, by the means of surplus labour, as capitalist-employers demand an
excess of the labour that is necessary to produce a product, which evidently generates
surplus value and profit for the bourgeoisie and poverty for the proletariat. This
cycle of exploitation is continually recreated through the conditions of the
labour process, evidently causing the working class to be left in a state they
cannot break free from.

For Marx, the bourgeoisie is ‘different’
from other dominant social classes, not only because it is oppressive, but as
he describes as “nakedly dehumanizing;” as he states “Not only are the slaves
of the bourgeoisie class, and of the bourgeoisie state, they are daily and
hourly enslaved by the machine, by the over-looker, and, above all, by the
individual bourgeoisie manufacturer himself.” Despite his claim stating that
this development is inevitable and that capitalism is inherently unstable; Marx
claims the productive forces to be compatible with the exploitative
relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, suggesting a
revolution of the proletariat must occur; ultimately laying the seed of the
bourgeoisie’s own destruction. As the bourgeoisie claim authority throughout
the capitalist society, the elimination of all social classes will not and
cannot be brought about through social reforms or adjustments in government.
Although however, Marx claims that by the means of the class’ nature, the
members of the lower class are not able to reallocate private that is in favor
of the bourgeoisie. This is due to the fact that they cannot appropriate
property. Hence, to acquire control, the members of the proletariat must
destroy all ownership of private property in order for all social class
distinctions to be eliminated. More however according to Marx, once class
distinctions are diminished, the end of exploitation of the proletariat will
follow as a result.