India Essay

Hinduism Origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryan peoples. (settled in 1500 B. C. ) Religion was passed down orally Eventually written down Early Hindus believed in the single force in the universe, a form of ultimate reality or god Duty of individual to seek it’s own ultimate reality By doing this you would merge with Brahman after death Reincarnation was believed (soul is born in a different way after death) Bhagvad Gita ”Worn-out garments are shed by the body/Worn-out bodies are shed by the dweller” All living beings seek to achieve brahman

Can be achieved after a number of existences in the earthly world Karma: Force generated by a person’s actions that determine how the person will be reborn in the next life A person’s current status isn’t an accident but a result of what they have done in the past Dharma: Divine law Yoga was used to achieve oneness with god “When all the senses are stilled, when the mind is at rest, that, say the wise, is the highest state. ” Hinduism came from a lot of human like gods and goddesses Hundreds of dieties: Three chief ones: Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, siva the destroyer.

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At temple they seek not only salvation but also for gaining the ordinary things they need in life. Religion of the vast majority of Indian people. Buddhism Origin Began is northeastern India 2,500 years old About suffering and the need to get rid of it Founder of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama Was called Buddha Lived in the 4th or 5th century B. C. in India Path of enlightenment Also known as “the awakened one” Siddhartha Gautama Born around 520 B. C. Born into a royal family Lived with in palace walls away from the sufferings of life Symbols of Buddhism The wheel of life

The lotus flower Buddha Sacred Text of Buddhists Tripitaka Also called Pali Canon Three sections of Tripitaka Vinaya Pitaka Sutta Pitaka Abhidhamma Pitaka Beliefs The Three Jewels Belief in Buddha Dharma The Sangha Buddha’s Teachings Three signs of beings Four noble truths Noble eightfold path Becoming A Holy Man monk was seen as a sign Become a homeless holy man Escaping death, old age and pain The Three Signs of Beings Dukkha Nothing is perfect Anicca Everything in life is changing Anatta There is no soul Karma The Four Noble Truths Dukkha Suffering exists Samudaya

There is a cause for suffering Nirodha There is an end to suffering Magga To end suffering you must follow the eightfold path The Noble Eight-fold Path Right view Right thought Right speech Right action Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Right concentration The 5 Percents Don’t kill Don’t steal Don’t overindulge Don’t lie Don’t drink alcohol or do drugs Geography & Buildings Interesting Facts India has the 2nd largest population on earth It represents 15% of the world’s population Geographic size is 1. 2 million square miles 3 Geographic Regions

The Himalayan region in the north The Gangetic Plain The plateau region in the south and central areas India’s Geography India is a country in South Asia Includes mountain ranges, river valleys, dry interior plateau, and fertile coastal plains Himalaya is the highest mountains in the world Ganges River one of the chief regions of Indian culture South of India lies the plateau Deccan Indians eastern and western coasts are lush plains India’s Climate Northern India in the Himalayas, has seasonal temperatures with cool winters Most of southern India, is hot and dry (120°)

Monsoons during June – September have storms with severe rain India From North To South India is a peninsula: the Arabian Sea on the west, the Bay of Bengal on the east, and the Indian Ocean to the south South of the Himalayas is the Indo-Gangetic Plain On the north-western end of India is the Thar desert Thar Desert Below the Himalayas is Rajasthan, known for its Thar Desert It gets its name from the word “thul” meaning sand ridges The desert recieves less than 10 inches of rain per year Buildings

The Taj Mahal was built between 1632 and 1653 by the Mughal Empire It was the emperor Shah Jahan’s monument to his wife Mumtaz Mahal It stands in the city of Agra in north India Interesting Facts About Taj Mahal About 22,000 workmen built the Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal is made from white marble stone with gems and stones pressed into its walls The North of India The Northeast has rich resources it is mainly tropical land with evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests There are also swamps and grasslands Also in the East are the Gangetic Plains, extending from eastern Rajasthan through West Bengal Western India

Western India engage in much commerce and trade The west is separated from the Thar Desert by the Aravalli Mountains Western plains and highlands produce millet, wheat, and pulses also a thriving fishing industry The Western Ghats are a steep mountain barrier along the western coast In the southwest the Deccan plateau begins, with a hotter forest climate The Deccan plateau covers about 43% of India’s total land surface The four major rivers support the wetlands, creating a fertile soil with many species of animal and plant life The Deccan plateau extends into the East and South as well Basic Crops

North: wheat, barley, and millet South: grain and vegetables. As well as cotton, pepper, ginger, and cinnamon. Rice was common in river valleys Language No written language First writing system by 1000 B. C- Sanskrit -enabled writings of legends and rituals Historical epics: Mahabharata and Ramayana Silk Road China’s most valuable product – Silk. The Silk Road was risen between 200 B. C. and 100 A. D. About 4,000 miles. Camels and people transported goods. Brahmans Top of social scale In charge of religious ceremonies. Priestly class Kshatriyas Warriors As society changed they often found new forms of employment

Vaisyas Commoners Most were merchants who engaged in commerse Farmers caring for the land Sudras Made up bulk of Indian population Most were peasants and who worked at other forms of manuel labor. Limited rights. Untouchables Lowest level of Indian society. Not even considered a real part of the caste system Given menial, degrading tasks. 5% of total population. Cities Harappa- 35,000 inhabitants Monenjo-baro –35,000 to 40,000 inhabitants Both carefully planned Both divided into large walled neighborhoods. Mauryan Dynasty Alexander the Great’s conquest rose the first dynasty. Founded by Chandragupta Maurya

Ruled from (324-301 B. C. ) Afraid of assassination Mauryan Empire collapse in 183 B. C. The Kushan Kingdom Established by Nomadic Warriors Grew from trade passing on the silk road Ended in third century Kingdom of Guptas Created by Prince Chandragupta Pataliputra The capital Samudragupta His son Expanded empire Became the dominant political force Kingdom of Guptas Faxian Chinese traveler Buddhist monk Admired the rulers and culture Trade Traded with China, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean Traded cloth, salt, and iron Kingdom of Guptas Huns Invaded in late fifth century Reduced power and took over