Indoor Environmental Quality and Sick Building Syndrome in Offices in Penang Island Essay

Chapter ONE


1.1Research Subject

As the conditions is rather a large challenge to Malaysia, therefore the Malaysians are tend to make the life environment every bit comfy as we can. Workplace environment is really of import as it guarantee the wellness, action and productiveness of workers who work in at that place. To guarantee an optimal working environment, the indoor environmental quality, or honestly said, the HVAC system plays a large function.

While when mentioning to journal viz.“Indoor Air Pollution and Health”edited by Emil J.Bardana, Jr. and Anthony Montanaro,“Americans are passing progressively more clip indoors, and patients often complain that their indoor air may be lending to their wellness problem.”The job is defined as Sick Building Syndrome ( SBS ) . Until current survey, the existent cause of ill edifice syndrome is still remaining unknown, but it is surely known that to be related to the indoor environmental quality of a infinite.

Seems that the Americans face the ill edifice syndrome job, non surprisingly that Malaysian besides face the same job. However, the bookmans in Malaysia are non truly cognizant of the subject. An intense research about“Indoor Environmental Quality ( IAQ ) and Prevalence of Sick Building Syndrome ( SBS ) in Selected Offices in Penang”to look into the relationship of indoor environmental quality and ill edifice syndrome should be carried out.


In the modern twenty-four hours, people tend to remain indoor for the day-to-day life instead than traveling outdoor. Harmonizing to a research made byUnited States Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) ,people who work in offices tends to pass about 90 % of their life indoors. While for the people in Malaysia, peculiarly in more beforehand topographic points such as Selangor and Penang, they tends to pass more than 80 % of their clip in the on the job topographic point, provided the warming, airing and air-conditional ( HVAC ) system is equipped.( Zamani, Jalaludin & A ; Shaharom, 2013 ).

As people work indoor for such long period, they will so be exposed to assorted indoor air contaminations that will do unwellnesss such as chemical contaminations emitted by HVAC system or biological micro-organism. They besides have to digest the effects of indoor temperature, humidness and other environmental graduated table as they prefer to remain indoors. Therefore, assorted wellness jobs have been faced by residents in office( John et al. , 2000 ). Among the wellness jobs that problem the office residents, the ill edifice syndrome ( SBS ) is one of the primary and serious job.( Redlich, Sparer & A ; Cullen, 1997 ).

The ill edifice syndrome ( SBS ) , which is widely used to depict symptoms where residents inside a edifice will see. For illustration, the allergic of eyes, nose, pharynx and tegument and lethargy. These symptoms will be when a individual stays inside a edifice, but they tend to vanish when he or she goes out. It is the non-specific and untraceable nature of these symptoms from which the name SBS originated.( Burge, Hedge, Wilson, Bass, & A ; Robertson, 1987 ; Finnegan, Pickering, & A ; Burge, 1984 ) .

1.3Research Questions

There are some research inquiries been determined as followers:

  1. How is the current indoor environmental quality of selected offices in Penang Island?
  2. What is the comfort degree of residents sing indoor environmental quality in selected offices in Penang Island?
  3. What is the degree of ill edifice syndrome symptoms faced by residents in selected offices in Penang Island?
  4. What is the recommendation that can be made to optimise the indoor environmental quality of the selected offices in Penang Island?

1.4Aim of Study

This survey is conducted to:

  1. Determine the current indoor environmental quality of the selected offices in Penang Island.
  2. Study the comfort degree of residents sing indoor environmental quality in selected offices in Penang Island.
  3. Investigate the degree of ill edifice syndrome faced by residents in selected offices in Penang Island.
  4. Establish the recommendation to optimise the indoor environmental quality of the selected offices in Penang Island.

1.5Research Methodology

Research methodological analysis is a systematic manner to work out a job. It is a scientific discipline of analyzing how research is to be carried out. Basically, the processs by which research workers go about their work of depicting, explicating and foretelling phenomena are called research methodological analysis. It is besides defined as the survey of methods by which cognition is gained. Its purpose is to give the work program of research. Three attacks were used throughout the whole survey to accomplish as much utile and effectual information. The attacks are as below:

  1. Publication research/Literature Review

Literature reappraisal is the first and first attack that was used in this study. A literature reappraisal is a text of a scholarly paper, which includes the current cognition including substantial findings, every bit good as theoretical and methodological parts to a peculiar subject. Literature reviews usage secondary beginnings, and do non describe new or original experimental work. Its chief ends are to locate the current survey within the organic structure of literature and to supply context for the peculiar reader. Literature reappraisals are a footing for research in about every academic field. The information beginnings could be came from books, diary, articles, studies, newspaper, magazines and thesis. It includes published and unpublished informations.

  1. Questionnaire ( study ) – Focus on office edifice users ( directors, staffs, workers )

In order to measure the comfort degree of residents sing indoor environmental quality of the office edifices and the degree of ill edifice syndromes of the respondents, questionnaire is prepared and will be distributed to 60 targeted population of the instance surveies. The targeted population of this study includes directors, staffs and whoever is the user of the edifice by utilizing on-line questionnaire. The questionnaires will be analysed by utilizing SPSS.

  1. Case Studies

Assorted trials have been carried out in all the selected office edifices. The trials will find the current indoor environmental quality of the edifice that would undertake one of the aim of this survey. Trials that have been carried out included humidness trial, temperature trial, lightning trial and others by utilizing indoor environmental quality metre, sound metre and lux metre.

1.6Problem Statement

The existent cause of Sick Building Syndrome ( SBS ) is nowhere to establish yet.( Passarelli, 2009 )There are metric tons of possible causes such as psychological factors, hapless indoor environmental quality, external beginning of pollution, noise and others( Jansz, 2011 )were suggested by research workers, however no individual cause has been identified and certified. However, with the high per centum of clip disbursement in office, workers who face the symptoms of SBS have biased that the SBS is ever caused by the hapless indoor environmental quality ( IEQ ) .

Harmonizing to theWorld Health Organization ( WHO ) Indoor Air Fact No.4in 1986, up to 30 % of new and remodeled edifices worldwide might do tonss of residents confronting to the symptoms of SBS, largely reported to be related to hapless indoor environmental quality. As the modern architecture design for the office is preponderantly as certain office edifices design that once more linked to the hapless indoor environmental quality ( IEQ ) .

Harmonizing toPenang Real Estate Market research study Q1 2014, the entire supply of intent built office infinite in Penang phase is 1.064 million square metre in Q3 2013 and the tenancy rate is 80.6 % . Despite that there are many offices available and occupied in Penang, no individual study province about the relationship between indoor environmental quality and its prevalence to vomit edifice syndrome in the office in Penang Island is able to be found.

In old researches conducted for edifices of Kuala Lumpur( Aizat et al. , 2009 )and Selangor( Zamani, Jalaludin & A ; Shaharom, 2013 ), both suggested that the content per centum of C dioxide, C monoxide and other air pollutants in office might impact the prevalence of ill edifice syndrome, while noise degree and illumination which might do ill edifice syndrome are non measured. Besides, both researches are comparing an old edifice to a new edifice. The decision which is made out from two edifice to stand for the overall status is less persuasive. In add-on, the research worker lineation that temperature and humidness are of import factor that will impact the prevalence of ill edifice syndrome in edifices in Kuala Lumpur but non in Selangor.

Therefore, this survey intend to look into the indoor environmental quality ( C dioxide content, temperature, humidness, air flow speed, noise and illumination ) which has non been measured by old Malayan research workers and its prevalence of ill edifice syndrome ( SBS ) among workers in 6 offices in Penang Island.

1.7 Scope of Study

In this research, the chief focal point is about the relationship between indoor environmental quality of selected office edifices ( which have 5-15 workers ) in Penang and the earnestness of ill constructing syndrome of the edifice users. The current quality of indoor environmental quality will be obtained by carry oning assorted trial ( temperature, humidness, air speed, air flow rate, noise degree and illumination ) in the edifices. While to find whether ill edifice syndrome was infected by the edifice users, the directors and some staffs will hold to reply the questionnaires that will be distributed to roll up informations beside from the literature reappraisal from assorted articles, diaries and books. The respondents of this study includes directors and staffs who use the edifice. Based on the informations that been collected, analysis will be carried out to find the current indoor environmental quality and the earnestness of ill constructing syndrome of users in every edifices.

1.8Research Model

A research model is a decision of all procedures on how a research is carried out. It will show the chronology of the research procedure and let the populace to understand and unclutter about how this research is carried out.

All the informations that been gathered from the questionnaire study will be analysed individually with a statistical method utilizing Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) package to analyze the relationship between the variables. Consequences of field trials will be tabulated for the interest of informations analysis. Figure 1.1 below shows the flow chart of research methodological analysis that involves five stages in order to accomplish the nucleus aims and purpose of this research.


PHASE 1:Statement of Issues





1.9Thesis Organization

Chapter Onediscusses about the debut and background of the research. The job statement every bit good as purpose and aims are established in this chapter including the range of survey and its restriction. Besides, hypothesis are made harmonizing to the literature reappraisal and by pulling the flow chart of the research methodological analysis, the overall guideline and advancement of the research are shown.

Chapter Twodiscusses about the literature reappraisal of this survey. This chapter will stress on the background of the subject and analyze the variables in this research by reexamining to the old related research. Datas from old similar research is needed to back up the survey.

Chapter Threeis chiefly discuss on the methodological analysiss used to roll up relevant informations to accomplish the terminal consequence for this research. In this chapter, item amplifications sing the methodological analysiss will be presented. The amplification including the design of the research and the processs to roll up the information. These are all discussed to give a more penetration on how the indoor environmental quality of the offices in Penang Island presents and besides the ground that cause ill edifice syndrome.

Chapter Fourpaperss all of the collected information of this survey. The collected informations will include the trial consequences within the instance surveies and respondents’ sentiments through questionnaire. Assorted analysis will be presented in order to do readers understand the consequences. In this chapter besides covers treatment of the consequence of collected information. The relationship between the indoor environmental quality of offices and its prevalence to vomit edifice syndrome will be discussed in item and observed in this chapter. Besides, the comparing of the studied variables between the instance surveies was observed. Comparison between the consequences from this survey and surveies done by old research workers will besides be discussed in this chapter.

Chapter Fivesummarises the findings and concludes the whole research papers. It include treatment on the accomplishment and achievement of each research objectives. Recommendation for farther surveies in related to the field of survey is besides highlighted in this chapter besides.