Introduction are Intrinsic and Extrinsic. Intrinsic Motivation

IntroductionHow does motivation play a role ina childcare worker being driven in the workplace?  An individual being a prompt, or a drivenworker has long been linked to the personal and environmental factors that theyuse to motivate themselves. Motivation is the reason for people’s actions, desires,and needs. Motivation is also what causes us to behave a certain way, or whatcauses a person to want to repeat a behavior (Wikipedia, 2017, p 1). It’sthe crucial element in setting and attaining goals.

 This paper will analyze the differenttypes of motivation or motivators and how it applies within the childcare fieldand how these factors causes their employees to perform at their best.Motivation can be categorized in two different ways being, which are Intrinsicand Extrinsic. Intrinsic Motivationand Performance Intrinsic Motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherentsatisfactions rather than for some separable consequence (Ryan& Deci,2000). In other words, it refers to the individual actions that is driven byone’s own internal logic.

Intrinsic motivation and performing well at yourjob can go hand in hand because normally when a person chose to put forth theirbest effort in an activity, it is normally related to a personal goal that hasalready been set which needs to be achieved or mastered. This can be viewed asmastery goal orientations in relation to an individual’s performance theorybecause this is defined as the “desire to develop, attain, or demonstratecompetence at an activity” (Cerasoli & Ford, 2014,p. 268). Thus, this results in intrinsic motivation to need a relaxenvironment for performance to be in relation of mastery goals because masterygoals allow intrinsic motivation to bring about additional purpose (Cerasoli& Ford, 2014). Therefore, think about an actor and when they chose to excelat their craft they do it because they love that feeling of pleasure orsatisfaction of knowing that they got the viewers to evoke some form of emotionwhile viewing their art.

Being that this craft requires real skills it may initiate what is called performance-contingentrewards. Performance- contingent rewards are rewards that relies on performancewhich is given when one excels above a specified level of performance,standard, or some defined criterion (Hendijani, et al.,2016). As you can see along with an individual being intrinsicallymotivated, comes many factors that can lead that individual to want tocontinually perform at their best.  Extrinsic Motivation and PerformanceExtrinsic Motivation reveals areason to participate in an action to an end rather than an end in itself(Makki & Abid, 2017, p.38).

Therefore, extrinsic motivation can be viewedas behavior that is driven by external factors or environment such as money,praise, fame, grades, reputation. For example, whenever a person is at work andstarts to enhance their performance because they have the goal in mind for apromotion they are usually extrinsically motivated. “Adefining characteristic of labor is that it is done only for extrinsic reward,whether that reward be pay for an employee, the price at which a self-employedproducer can sell his product, or the use of the product itself for asubsistence producer” (Himmelweitp,1999, p.

28). Extrinsic motivation can lookat as a need that individual been requiring or wanting to fulfil for theirpersonal gain or well-being. “Based on expectancy-value theories, motivationtoward a task is the result of effort-outcome expectancy (i.

e., the perceivedprobability of success) and the valence or desirability of the outcome (i.e.,the attractiveness of the outcome).

External rewards can improve overallmotivation and performance by enhancing the subjective probability of success(i.e., rising expectancy; and by increasing the valence or desirability of thegoal upon which the reward is contingent.

From the reinforcement theoryperspective, rewards can control behavior and can be used to influence behaviorin a specific direction. Based on agency theory, individuals areself-interested, rational, and utility-maximizing. They are unwilling to exerteffort for a goal that does not contribute to their economic well-being.Therefore, individuals choose and pursue goals that maximize their utility.Performance-contingent rewards increase individuals’ utilities and are moredesirable compared to no reward or noncontingent reward conditions” (Hendijani,et al., 2016, p.

254). The idea of being extrinsically motivated in relation toperformance seems to be that the idea to perform well only comes from personown self attainments which in turn some looks to be selfish. In the article “The Interrelationship of Intrinsic andExtrinsic Motivation” by Jerry Dermer about an experiment designed byHackman and Porter and while they were assessing extrinsic rewards based ongood budget performance, the results displayed that in seven statement budgetperformance was connected to fulfillment of seven extrinsic rewards.

Which were”recognition, increased responsibility, advancement, better supervisoryrelations, better peer relations, increased pay, and job security” (Dermer,1975, p.126). Even though extrinsic motivation may get an individual tooriginally perform a task it may find it hard to therefore keep that saliencein that activity. Motivation andChildcare Workers Providingchildcare can be dated back as far 1700s and still today can be categorized asan important institution that helps grow and enhance the individuals forsociety from a tender age. “The roots of child and youth care work as adistinct field in North America have been traced through the development ofinstitutional homes of the 1700s, camps and clubs of the early 1900s followingthe industrial revolution and growing immigration, and contexts of residentialcare, hospitals, and juvenile justice programs. It is ”within theseorphanages, industrial and training schools, residential schools, andcommunity-based recreational services that child and youth care was born inNorth America” (Charles & Garfat, 2009, p.

19). There are four examplesdemonstrates the needs and opportunities for these communities becomingenlightened:  YMCA (1850s), Juvenilecourts (1890s), Boys and Girls Clubs (1900s), Boy and Girl Scouts (1910s),(Freeman, 2013, p. 101). Childcare worker may not be viewed as a fun or easyjob.

These workers are often underpaid, overworked, and always having to facescrutiny. So, it is not to any surprise that they are often being asked why doyou do this job? Being that the childcare field is mostly populated by femaleworkers, research has shown that female is more intrinsically motivated. In thearticle “Influence of Intrinsic andExtrinsic Motivation on Employee’s Task Performance” After conducting theirresearch and using different method to see the correlation between extrinsicand intrinsic motivation and task performance when the results were evaluated,and they looked at the mean, standard deviation, and t value for scores ofgenders on intrinsic motivation the results showed that female was moreintrinsically motivated as to males (Makki & Abid, p. 38).

Individuals whonormally perform such work do not normally do it is fun or because it providesgreat incentives but rather because it fulfills something internally that mayhave needed to be met. In the report “WhyPeople Choose to Be Residential Child Care Workers” Tally Moses talks aboutlooking at the initial motivation behind why people look for employment as aresident childcare worker. When asked participants of this study what made themdo this type of work the popular response involved, “a quest for providingsocially meaningful work that contributes to tomorrow’s generation or societyas whole” (Moses, 2000, p.118). When ask Debbie Chapman who works at BrightHorizons an early education and preschool child care provider, what motivatesher to perform her task.

She replied “To conquer the job and the obstacles thatmay come with it. The follow question to that was, what type of feeling do itgive to you? Mrs. Chapman then responded financial freedom, so in her instanceboth extrinsic and intrinsic motivation comes to play when performing her taskat the best of her ability. It is evident that there are many different factorsthat contributes to a childcare worker being motivated to perform well at theirjobs. For example, “Cultivating athriving childcare workforce: a theory-driven qualitative analysis” when itwas examine  to see what work conditionswere most salient for childcare providers and  job resources enhancechildcare experiences on the job, the responses for salience had to do withdecision-making discretion, information sharing, climate of trust and respectand the for resources were knowledge gained, positive meaning( had to do withthe meaning attributed to their works), positive emotions. In the positiveemotions one of the participants equated the entirety of the as “To sum it up,it’s the most stressful job that you’ll ever love, with the biggest rewards!” (Travis,et.

al., 2014, p. 332-335). Also, in the childcare field thedifferences of roles, titles, work environment or even the employees homestructure are some factors that would tend to influence how they perform theirjob.

For example, for like a company like Bright Horizons who has businesseslocated throughout many different locations it seems to be a normal trend whenstaff in different locations are asked about their feelings toward their jobsto get many diverse responses. For example, when asked New York staff membersabout their work environment why they are in the company the normal responseeither stems from them either saying they are just doing this for now untilthey finish school or get something better or on the other spectrum some saysthey just have a love for kids and the joy they see on a child face or thatsame feeling that they when the child have learned, discovered, or figured outsomething new. When asked Elizabeth who used to work in one of the facilitiesin Virginia about how was it to work there she replied “that was good andmotivating because it was a welcoming environment, and everyone worked as acommunity rather than just for themselves and the directors for the site seemedto really care and had her staff backs. Therefore, you can conclude that NewYork employees seemed unhappier and less extrinsically motivated compared toVirginia employees because the environment that was around them was not verymotivating to them and all the staff in New York region had a mentality ofeveryone for themselves. In the childcare field the idea of freedom orself-sufficiency seems to place a big role in childcare workers being pleasedin their profession.

“Where valuescollide: motivation and role conflict in child and adult protective services”talks about interviews that were conducted with child and protective serviceworkers about the nature of their jobs and why they do it, the findings were:”frontline workers found satisfaction in helping others, but noted it was thegratitude of clients that was important in this regard. He noted it not so muchthe nature of the work itself as the social reward of client’s appreciationthat workers found most gratifying” (Vinzant, 1988, p. 347). In the article, “Teacher education, motivation, compensation,workplace support, and links to quality of center-based child care andteachers’ intention to stay in the early childhood profession” it spoke astudy that looking at motivations for child care work and these are thefindings: “Providers were asked to rate on a scale from (1) “definitely doesnot represent” to (5) “definitely represents” how well each of the followingquestions describes their motivation for child care work: (1) “my career orprofession” (mean = 4.4; S.D.

= 1.1); (2) “a stepping stone to a related careeror profession” (mean = 3.5; S.D. = 1.5); and (3) “a personalcalling” (mean = 4.5; S.

D. = .8). The last question was designed specificallyfor this study based on qualitative findings from another study of providermotivation (Buell, Pfister, & Game-McCormick, 2002)” (Torquati, et.al.,2007, p. 266).  Conclusion Afterconducting my research, I have come to notice that childcare workers are moreintrinsically motivated than extrinsically.

These Individuals are driven basedon gaining a feeling of satisfaction and the feeling that they helped a personlife better whether it be through growth, environment, learning in general,that’s what makes their job meaningful and worth it in the end. Also came toconclude that a childcare worker motivation can therefore be both becomeinterrelated when it comes to whether they may be start off with eitherintrinsic motivation and then end up completing the task extrinsically or viceversa. Overall, there are many different factors that leads to the influencingintrinsic or extrinsic motivation so whenever examining motivation in relationto performance that must be taken into consideration.