Introduction:When the child starts to pick up language? He starts earlier than mostof us think and end much later than we think too, because there is an end ofsound and grammar acquisition, but there is always some new world learn, therefore,it is an ongoing process.
The child starts learning language by imitation and experimenting with babbling,then he uses a one word sentence, next atwo word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand his language,that is not confined to speaking but to reading and writing skills. Many scientistsstudied language acquisition and developed theories about vocabulary, discourse,and grammar acquisition which is not just applicable in the English languagebut also in other languages too. Literacy is not restrained in its use ineducation or at work, it is part of our everyday life in malls, restaurants, andeven within the same families literacy practice is encouraged to help the childto grasp and understand the use of language and to have confidence to deliverhis messages properly in written and spoken form, express his intentions andpersonality according to the image he wants to deliver to the people around him.The orthography system of the English has its downsides which cause somedifficulties that the child needs to overcome to have a good command over the language,but it has its upsides that simplify the learning of this language. Currently Englishis an international language that is not just used by native speakers but alsoby non-native speakers , through the course of learning English there are different andcommon problems that both speakers face. The language was among the first inventions of the human being, it hasits various systems that represent every nation around the world in its cultureand accomplishment which have been passed on through generations, and allow the new generation to express hisown time by his own words which gives the language new words and uses, causingthe language to change constantly. The theories about language acquisitionwere an efforts of many scientist that study one language perspective at thetime grammar ,discourse…etc.
and getting those bits and pieces into the jigsawof language acquisition gives us the big picture and its complexity and wondering natur Language is a mean of communicating and expressingthoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken language emerged first by makingsounds that represent pictures which address the auditory system, then letters andwords that address the ophthalmic system of the human being. The necessity of awriting system aroused from the need to record events and communicate it withdifferent people across the different period of time, different writing systemswere developed across the word which vary in its complexity.(Webster,1806) it relates symbols or pictographs to letters, syllables and sentence to communicatewritten language . Orthography is”the accepted way of spelling and writing.” (www.cambridgedictionary.org) or “The art of writing words with the properletter according to standard use “(www.
meriam-wbster.com) In a perfect language, letters correspond with sounds, butthe English language is a syllabic language and has its characteristics, itconsists of twenty-six letters written from right to left in a sideways top tobottom. In a perfect language every letter corresponds to a sound, however,some of them correspond with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).Theinconsistencies in the English orthography made English a challenging languageto acquire even for children who are mono-lingual English native speakers,because many inconsistencies were not just at the level of the letter and theirpresentation of more than one sound, but also at the level of words.Historically the English language is a dialect; its position was elevated andbecame an international language spoken by many tongues as a mother language orsecond or foreign language, it came into contact with English like Latin,German, French, Danish which brought many words into the language and changingother words meaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has Frenchand Italian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello,now it is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way.
Building onwhat is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English isopaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the Englishlanguage causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes theprediction of its pronunciation and writing very hard.(www,youtube.com)There are other difficulties that face not justchildren but adult too, for example some sounds stayed or disappeared ,the /f/ sound inwords like: cough, enough, through or thought, other sounds were lost at thebeginning of the words in words like: wrong and knee, some letters becomesilent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology, Island.
Daughter, furthermore wordshave swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is pronounced vegtable (www.
thought.com), and some English letters give many differentpronunciations for the same letter for e.g. the words bear, ear, and heart.The English orthography stabilized through thecenturies mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helpedin the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document thepronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference betweendifferent standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.
com)The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help todifferentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar ,morphemes likeinflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived.(allington,mayor,2012)Learning to speak and write are intertwined, the childstarts the process of learning to speak by imitating other people around him,so Speech is important in developing language skills, improving vocabulary,receiving and producing language, furthermore, understanding the connection betweenspoken and written language is essential to organize and deliver the meaning ofthe message in a more efficient and coherent way. (www.lob.
ca) By studying language new methods were developed tofacilitate learning and teaching English according to many perspectives thatwere adopted, one of those perspectives is social perspective, which depends onthe need and the necessity of the child to express his emotions, needs, and hissocial identity in the society. How children acquire language is contentiousbetween the anthropologist, sociolinguists, psychologists…etc, and there aremany perspectives of their studies one of them is the social perspective towardhow a child acquires literacy and what they do with literacy in their everydaylife, and since spoken and written language are closely related literacy is apart of a wider communicative practice, and using literacy in this senseinvolves exchanging knowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers whohave their essential role the way the children acquire language, and how theyget involved in practices that will help the children to gain literacy in amore effective way like storybook reading which studies shown that it supportsthe child language development, and literacy practice later in life.(www.2.sfasu.edu)There are many other reasons that affecthow child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, thesociety that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, thelevel of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning,and social class, religion, the position of the child in the family, and how hedeals with the difficulties that he faces which is part of the child psychology.The literacy of the child at an early ageis strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to hisor her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that isintertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices ona frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction oradventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring thelanguage in children is their relationship with their parents and their parentbeliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in schoolthat facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging childrenin songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting with childrenin conversation to see how they understand literacy and literary texts,furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically to learnwritten and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learning andmake it more appealing to him(www.2.sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed inbilingual communities that are affected by religion, social class, schoolsparent’s educational level, and the bilingual children may have someimpediments in learning English for example if their other language is writtenfrom right to left, not from left to right they may start writing English fromright to left, or they may think about the subject in one language and write itin another or they may code-switch during writing.In the end every child has the right to have the bestof his or her learning experiences, because it affects their whole life andhaving difficulties in learning and writing should be treated starts as a little human with theability and the need to express his thoughts, ambition and the right to definehimself as somebody with possibilities