1.1 Background of study
Most people experience stress and anxiety from time to time. The feeling of stress can be triggered by an event that makes you feel frustrated or nervous. Anxiety, emotional and academic stress among college students are a cause of concern. A lot of money has been invested into education by every nation, however there are research survey on college student’s that there will be 10 to 20 % of student population suffering from psychological problems (Bhuiade, V. M., 2017). Higher education is a stressful period for college students. They have to cope with various changes as living away from families, a heavy syllabus, and inefficiency in higher education programs (Bhuiade, V. M., 2017). This article focuses on the stressors among college students,
1.2 Purpose of study
Students well-being and mental health are important not only in its own right but because they represent the society’s investment in the future. Psychological problems among student population varies from 2% to as high as 50% (Bhuiade, V. M., 2017). If one randomly examines a student’s well-being, they can find that 1 in 10 students will have emotional struggles severe enough to acquire professional help. (Farnsworh, 1997). These are common among the student population.
1.3 Research Objective
1. To analyse the relationship of stress and psychological state.
2. To comprehend the causes of anxiety.
3. Understanding the effects of stress on academic performance
1.4 Research Questions
1. How is stress affecting students psychological state?
2. What are the stressors that causes anxiety?
3. How does these factors affect students’ academic performance?
2.1 Stress Among College Students
Stress has become a universal explanation for human behaviour, failure and diseases (Russell Viner, 1999). Stress is a major area of research and according to an estimate by Jones and Bright (2001), more than 1000 academic articles on stress were published each year in the decade prior to 2000 (Chow, P., & Flynn, D. M.,2016). Stress is a response to a threat in a situation while anxiety is a reaction of the stress. Both can moderately interfere with people lives. Chronic stress can affect people’s health, causing from symptoms of headaches, skin rashes, loss of sleep, high blood pressure and chest pain to heart palpitations. Most of the social, psychological and emotional problems are related to unrelieved stress. It has been found that most of the social, psychological and emotional problems are related to unrelieved stress (Puri, P., Kaur, T., & Yadav, K., 2016).
There have been reports suggest that the college environment is different from other setting yet levels of stress are no less serious (Sarason, Johnson & Siegel,1978). A brief review on articles published on problems of college students, the term ‘stress’ refers to the psychological state which derives from the person’s appraisal of the success with which he or she can adjust to the demands of the society environment (Bhuiade, V. M., 2017).
A cross institutional study found stress the top of health problems which worried students most, followed by body image, AIDS, physical fitness and cancer (Delene & Brogowich, 1990).
2.2 What Is Stressful To Undergraduates
College students deal with a unique amount of stress during their college period. Specifically, college calls for a significant transition, where students experience many firsts, including new lifestyle, friends, roommates, exposure to new cultures and alternate ways of thinking (Bhuiade, V. M., 2017). In the process of adjusting to different circumstances stress may help or hinder depending on how one reacts to it (Puri, P., Kaur, T., & Yadav, K., 2016).
Academic stressors can stem the feeling of incompetence and in college, there is bound to be competitions. There is the tangible pressure to do well, whether the demands are from parents or the students (Bhuiade, V. M., 2017). The fear of academic failure is a definite stressor. It was found that stress was more apparent among second year medical students in the fear of not achieving their goal in becoming a doctor.
Fatigue is often mentioned as a stressor and many researchers describe hypochondriac phenomenon (also known as second year syndrome or intern’s syndrome) in which where medical students imagine they have the disease while studying it.
When students appraise their education as challenge, stress can bring them a sense of competence and an increased capacity to learn, when education is seen as threat, however, stress can elicit feelings of helplessness and a foreboding sense of loss (Lazarus, 1966).
2.3 Emotional and psychological problems encountered by students
1. Anxieties about aspects od study including exam and presentations,
2. General stress and anxiety,
4. Relationship difficulties,
5. Eating problems,
6. Bereavements and parental separation,
7. Loneliness and homesickness,
8. Lack of self-confidence or low self-esteem,
9. Managing transitions,
10. Making difficult decisions,
11. Difficulties with alcohol or drugs,
12. Issues around sex and sexuality,
14. Suicidal thoughts,
15. Anger management and worries about appearance.
2.4 Anxiety is psychological state.
o Adapting- new environment
o Anxiety is the feeling of fear, worry or uneased.
A group of 16 regular students enrolled in the first-year college of Sunway College, Malaysia were conveniently selected for this survey. All were homogenous in age where the average age of participants was 18 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 0 years.
Academic Stress Scale (ASS; Kohn & Frazer, 1986) was used in this research. The ASS is a scale designed to measure the students’ perceived academic stressors. Respondents report their level of stress under 35 different stressful situations using a 5-point Likert response format. Scores are obtained by summing the reported scores for each item.
Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI; Spielberger et al., 1980): the TAI is a widely used instrument for measuring test anxiety in college students. It consist of 20 items where each item is rated on a 4 point scale where the responses collected from the ASS will be fitted into the questionnaire, yielding a total test anxiety score ranging from a minimum of 20 to
a maximum of 80 points. Psychometric data on the TAI suggests adequate test-retest reliability and internal reliability.
The test was first run by 10 students to see if it could be understood clearly or if there need to be changes. It then was posted online through a survey and students were aware this survey was through the social media. All responses were voluntary.