INTRODUCTION:Occupationalhealth’s main focus is on the “development of work organizations and workingcultures in a way, which endorses safety and health at job and also promotessmooth operations and a positive social climate and may increase productivityof the undertakings (Joint ILO/WHO committee on occupational health, 1950).Employers should promote such working environments which reduced medical costand motivate employees by providing healthy and safe work environment becauseincreased job performance of workers associated with healthy and safe workenvironment. “Psychosocial work environment” is one of the most criticalpredictors of job performance which is showed by two famous psychosocial jobstress models for example “Job demand-Control” and “effort reward imbalance”.In recent times these two stress models were integrated and developed into theJob demand and resource model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). The job demandand resource model emphasis organizational outcomes including job performancethrough two different processes. One process states that high job demandsreduce job performance through reduced energy and health.
Second process statesthat high job resources increases job performance through increased workmotivation. Psychologicalcontract breach also affects both the mental and physical health of employees.When the important obligations are not met by the employers then PCB works as apsychosocial stressor at work that shows crucial risks to employees’ health(Mareike Reimann & Guzy, 2016). Psychological contracts are considered tobe an important term for understanding modern employment relationships as wellas employment behavior in general (Conway & Briner, 2005: Guest 2004: Zhao,Bravo, & Glibkowski, 2007). Empiricalstudies have represents that psychological contract breach enhances employees’burnout (Chambel &Olivrira-Cruz, 2010) and is negatively associated withpsychological well-being (Conway &Briner, 2002). According to effort-rewardimbalance model an imbalance in employment relationship that acts as apsychological work stressor that leads to negative emotions and perceivedstress which in turn lead to damage employee physical and mental health(siegrist, 1996).
In short, psychological contracts unwritten implied contractsrefer to employees expectations regarding mutual exchange agreements with theiremployers implying that employees expect from the organization to meet certainobligations. If employees feel that their expectations are not fulfill by theemployers, researchers stated that this psychological contract breach lead tothe experience of job strain. Affectiveevent theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) explains the relation betweenemployees internal influences for example cognitions, emotions and mentalstates and their reactions to events occur in their work environment thateffects job performance, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. MoreoverAET is a psychological model that explains the relationship between emotionsand feelings in the work place and job performance, job satisfaction andbehaviors. According to AET theory, employees’ emotions and moods are guided bythe events that occur at workplace. The theory explains that if employees’expectations are not met by the employers their job satisfaction level goesdown and they will not show the positive behavior at work.
AET also explainsdifferent employee behaviors like organizational citizenship behavior counterproductive work behavior and job withdrawal. In short, when employees faceuplifts (receiving an award) or hassles (dealing difficult clients) at worktheir intention to quit or continue depends upon their moods, emotions andthoughts linked with the satisfaction they derive from their workplace. Ifworkers are not satisfied, they will not show the positive behavior becauseunmet expectations cause psychological contract breach.
Emotions help toexplain the organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive workbehavior for example emotions about one’s job. Organization always requiredworkers who not only show the high level of performance in their tasks but theyalso engage in behavior that is not directly required from formal jobdescriptions (Bolino &Tumely, 2005). Organizational citizenship behavior ishighly valued by the employer (Organ, Podsakoff, Mackenzie, 2006).
On the otherhand counterproductive work behaviors are less ideal workplace work behaviorswhen employees go against the legitimate interests of an organization. Counterproductive work behaviors can harm theorganizations or people of organizations including customers and employees. Firstthe thesis will investigate the relationship between job demands and jobresource with OCB and CWB.
When job demands are increased then level of energyof employees goes down due to stress and they will show the negative behaviorlike CWB. If the job resources are increased then the level of energy ofemployees goes up and they will show the positive behavior like OCB. Secondthe thesis will investigate the relationship between job demands, job resourcesand job performance like OCB and CWB with mediating role of psychologicalcontract breach.
Due to excessive job demands the pressure will increase onemployees that they do not expect from the organization so due to thispsychological contract breach occur and employee will show the negativebehavior like CWB. On the other hand job resources decrease the pressure onemployees because their expectations regarding job are met by the employer soPCB will not occur and they will show the positive behavior like OCB. OBJECTIVES AND AIMS:Thefirst objective is to check the relationship between job demands and OCB.Thesecond objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources andCWB.Thethird objective is to investigate the relationship between job demands and OCBwith mediating role of psychological contract breach.Thefourth objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources andCWB with mediating role of psychological contract breach.Thefifth objective is to investigate the relationship between job demands and CWBwith mediating role of psychological contract breach.Thesixth objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources andOCB with mediating role of psychological contract breach.