Introduction: UK alone, 80 tons of microbeads is

Introduction: (not finished) Plastic Microbeads is a synthetic polymer particles which mainly derives from large pieces of plastic debris (called secondary microplastics) or is intentionally manufactured for mainly for face;body exfoliation wash (primary plastic microbeads). Due to the direct impact to the marine biodiversity, governments and companies has immediately putting a ban towards this manufacturing.H.r1321,called the Microbead-Free Waters Act 2015 was passed by the Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama. This article will solely based on the primary plastic microbeads. These plastic microbeads were patented in the 1970’s but was only used as disposable entity in consumer products recently ?? Uses for Plastic Microbeads Plastic Microbeads is a synthetic polymer particles found in face, body wash and toothpastes. In some cases the plastic microbeads can also be found in anti-aging makeup, lip gloss and nail polish. According to the (Telegraph 2016) a single shower can release 100,000 plastic microbeads in the ocean. In United States alone, there are 8 trillion plastic microbeads flushed to the marine habitats everyday according to the (IMAM,2015).Downsizing to the perspective of a person’s a single use of certain facial scrubs- 100,000 microbeads is released into the ocean (TakePart 2015), from the plymouth university. Calculating the total microbeads being released annually in UK alone, 80 tons of microbeads is made into the ocean (TakePart 2015).Moreover The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report (June 2015) “Plastic in Cosmetics” states that a exfoliating shower gel can contain approximately as much plastic microbeads in cosmetic formulation to the plastic packaging coming in. Despite this there are other types of used in plastic microbeads as they are shown in other cleaning products and printing toners.Industrially used as plastic blasting (used as an abrasive factor) ,oil and gas exploration,textile printing and automotive moulding, other plastic products such as anti-slip,anti-blocking application and medical application. Why is polyethylene is mostly common plastic? Roger 2018 (not necessary?)Polyethylene (PE) is the most common polymer and is classified as a thermosetting plastic due to the fact way polyethylene responds to the heat. As polyethylene melts to become liquid at 110-130 degrees depending on respected ratio of LLDPE and HDPE. Commonly polyethylene is subcategories into two categories- LDPE ( low density polyethylene) which gives the flexibility material due to the high ductility but low tensile strength. HDPE (high density polyethylene) which gives the strong, high density and a highly crystalline structure. Giving possibilities of polyethylene in terms of the personal industries, polyethylene can be recycled again due the thermosetting properties. (relate to the environment issues). Polyethylene is used to dilute solids or to increase the thickness of the lipids portion in PCCP products to keep emulsion in place in the product ( 2018). However in this essay, I have already specified the plastic microbeads is solid. The polyethylene in the form of plastic microbeads is used for exfoliating,smoothing or polishing the skin and in some cases in terms of oral – toothpastes. 2. Physical Properties/Chemical Properties for Plastic Microbeads The term Plastic Microbeads was originally to differentiate plastics in terms of size, as the word macro is used to describe larger plastics whereas Micro is used to describe plastics that can only be seen using microscope. In the specifics of the classification of the plastic microbeads has not been definite due to the fact that researchers uses different types of sampling methods to characterize the microplastic investigated.Researchers characterize these plastic microbeads by the specifics of the upper and lower limits of the size, for example some researchers base their research on (Andrady,2011) through the use of neuston nets for their sampling. Despite the 2015 report from the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP 2015) recommends the size in terms of the classification in plastic microbeads should be >5 mm to 1 nm ( 1 nanometer is one billionth of a meter). In other nations or states the definition still vary. In summary, this report will base according to (GESAMP 2015) with the size of the plastic microbead ranging from less than 5mm to 1 nm (nanometer). Density of the Microbeads affecting the location in the ocean water columnThe density varies between the plastic microbeads functionality. Furthermore the density allows scientists to have a vague location of where certain types of plastic microbeads is located. Such as suspending on water surfaces or settled on the sediments- ranging in the water column. Theoretically the density of the, due to this the buoyancy (upthrust force in fluids) will affect the location of plastic microbeads theoretically approximately 1.027 g/cm3. Referencing from table 2 ,everything above polyamide (nylon)  would be found suspending or floating above the water; polystyrene; polypropylene and polyethylene .This area is called the pelagic zone which is the open water column where 86% of all sea turtle; 44% sea birds species; 43% of marine animal depends their livelihoods food source(Monterey Bay 2018). This allows researchers to use neuston nets or trough to analyse the number of polyethylene and polypropylene found. (link to the marine biodiversity of where they can be swimming through the area of water). Descending from polyester to polyurethane, the plastic microbeads will situate in between the benthic zone- from the seabed sediments and above. The Pycnocline indicates the layers of the water as the water density changes with depth.The latitude of 30-40 latitude degrees (40th parallel south) south is the equatorial plane in 40 degrees south  which crosses the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific ocean and South America. ( Different factors associated with the distribution of the plastic microbeads.  Validating the location of the microbeads in the water column the main factors comes into play with the deciding factor for influence to the ocean density, is temperature and the salinity. Descending down the water column, logically, temperature decreases due to the increasing absence of sunlight which increases density. Inversely, higher salinity concentration in the water causes the density to increase (,n,d). Due to the dependence of the ocean circulation of the change in temperature and salinity in oceanographic regions, this creates a circulation called thermohaline.The thermohaline circulation (Jason.D 2017) acts as a “conveyor” belt transporting from the lower latitudes of Atlantic Ocean towards the poles, for example in the Arctic waters accounts less than 3 percent of the total of the eight million tons of plastic each year according to Schlossberg report. Moreover there is a possibility in which microplastics may accumulate to the Greenland and the Barents seas( located between Scandinavia and Russia.