Humans tend to decide some things or
believe some things because of or on bases of strong historical reasoning.
However, this reasoning is shared knowledge thus it gives rise to assumptions.
Upon considering our personal knowledge from the shared knowledge we have
received, we are inclined to assume the future results and hence we take
decisions considering these assumptions as uniformities – and to be real.
An assumption can be stated as a
powerful imagination, which we trust to be true. The power of assumption can
make anything possible just the way an imagination can make anything seem real.
The difference between both is that one is done with conscious mind whereas the
other is a subconscious thought. Therefore, we have faith in the existence of
assumptions and not in imagination, which is merely an illusion of fantasy or
fear. Without the existence of assumptions, imagination cannot become reality
because until we do not assume that the imagination can be created in real, it
will all just stay in our mind.
However, with reference to Merriam
Webster dictionary, assumption is defined as the act of laying claim to or
taking possession of something that requires faith to justify itself. (Merriam Webster, 2017) Assumptions are not limited to the specific
areas of knowledge. However, they also play a very important role in our daily
lives; women assume measurements of ingredients while cooking like two fists
for 2 cups, while solving exam questions we assume our method and answer to be
correct. Also some scientific values are assumed to be uniform while they are
not really constant, for example value of gravity is assumed to be 9.8m/s but
this figure is not accurate however it is considered to be uniform for theories
to be evolved.
Uniformities can be scientifically
expressed as assumptions made into facts to be used to build and give reasoning
to theories in all areas of knowledge or according to the Merriam Webster
dictionary – the quality or state of being uniform. (Merriam Webster, 2017) Without the existence of these assumptions to be
uniform, people would not have faith on theories and neither will they be able
to justify such philosophies. Thus, “Without
assumption of the existence of uniformities there can be no knowledge” and
Natural Sciences can be used as an area of knowledge to discuss this claim with
faith and reasoning as way of knowing to explore it further.
are assumed uniformities in Physics considered constant to justify scientific
From this protestation, I claim that because an average uniform value is, more
or less, equal to the real value therefore it can be assumed true – as well as
their results. For instance the unified atomic mass unit with the symbol u
or Da, which is a physical constant with the value 1.661×10?27 kg = 931.5MeVc?2.
This value was named after John Dalton who stated that one unified atomic mass
unit is approximately the mass of one
nucleon and numerically equivalent to 1g/mol. Hence, this value was also made part
of the IUPAC system. Well, the deducted reasoning for this is so that
researchers from all over the world can use this figure to conduct experiments
and attain same results.
Once in grade 11 we performed an experiment
were we had to find atomic mass of aloe vera, which we could not find it practically
thus we used Dalton’s constant for unified atomic mass to find the mass of aloe
vera. This shows how keeping faith on uniform theories helps us gain knowledge.
However, countering the above claim; these uniform values are only assumed to be
constant therefore they cannot be trusted to give accurate results as these
might be different for places around the world hence they also cannot be established as uniform. The claim itself
questions the meaning of constancy because in the scientific world some terms
are assumed uniform for numerical convenience, however the real value is not
the same. I realized this when once in my physics class, we were solving a
mechanics’ question and we had to use acceleration of free fall value to solve
it hence I used 10m/s as in IGCSE we had learned that this is an uniform figure
for gravity. However, my teacher corrected me saying that the accurate value of
acceleration of free fall is 9.8m/s in fact the real value is ranged between
9.779m/s and 9.819m/s, discovered first by Galileo Galilei– 400 years back. Galileo
conducted his experiments using a ball on an inclined plane to determine the
relationship between the time and distance traveled – however, this idea was further
evolved by NASA to use in Astrophysics. (Nancy H., 2015)
The induced reasoning is that, the value
of acceleration of free fall changes according to the distance between the
object and the Earth because the attractive force between them also differs.
Therefore, it is necessary to find the average to know the standard value of
gravity – as value of gravity is equal for all objects in the Earth’s
gravitational field – so that it can be used in formulae to justify theories
like why two objects falling from the same height has same acceleration of free
fall regardless of their masses. This
explains that, every uniform value in Physics is rounded up to a smaller figure
before being used in a scientific expression to make the calculations easier
does the indigenous society assume uniformities to create their knowledge?
The second area of knowledge I would
like to discuss is Indigenous Knowledge forms – with reference to faith and
reasoning as my ways of knowing. Indigenous Knowledge forms are knowledge
systems developed by a community as opposed to the scientific knowledge. Thus,
indigenous knowledge like Pranic healing, divine healing and black magic
require faith of an individual on these knowledge and its uniformities form
them to benefit from this discipline. Hence, I claim that perceiving knowledge from natural powers is a belief that does not
require justification as the only thing that is natural is nature therefore
its uniformities can be believed to be true.
For instance, Reiki, which is a form of healing
people, developed in 1922, by Japanese Buddhist Mikao Usui. These Reiki
practitioners use a technique called palm healing through which a
“universal energy” is transferred through the palms of the
practitioner to the patient in order to heal them emotionally or physically. (Usui, Mikao; et al. 2000) This type of medication is believed to
work only if the patient trusts the disciplines of this knowledge to heal its
However in contradiction, these types of
societies (indigenous) do not have scientific explanation of their
uniformities, for example Reiki is pseudoscience. Moreover, the life force,
which is believed to heal a person, has no traces of its existence. Thus, counter
claiming my above claim; uniformities of
Indigenous Knowledge, established by the indigenous society cannot be justified,
as they are blind beliefs.
For example, of this, I would like to
share an experience; a year ago, my uncle had an operation and he consulted his
friend, who is a part of indigenous society, to ask whether there is any way of
reducing his pain. His friend asked him to relax, chanted some words in his
mind, and kept his hand on my uncle’s head. After few hours my uncle could not
bear the pain, thus he stood up angrily saying such treatments are myths. This
incident made me think that we tend to believe something only until it
interests us. One’s faith has ability to manipulate his/her mind and follow
their conviction therefore if he/she has faith on a specific type of treatment
they are healed faster compared to those who doubt this knowledge like my uncle.
In summation, different people have beliefs
on different uniformities depending on their desire of acquiring that
knowledge. However, people not knowing the assumed uniformities of the
knowledge still received and believed the same knowledge, for example the
medieval people while some uniformities where established by them. Perspectives
also change according to one’s faith, for instance some religious assumptions
may not be accepted by different societies or even different age groups. Their
conviction may tell them to believe uniformities with strong scientific
explanation. Nevertheless, assumed measurements or uniformities for cooking may
not be understood by men as much as women (or vise versa) – as they used to it.
Assumption of uniformities is possession
of concept of knowing a rule, which is required to obtain knowledge. Mostly all
assumed uniformities are accepted worldwide and are made into facts hence
doubting them will deprive us from receiving knowledge. However, it is not
necessary to believe all uniformities blindly as they are not verified once
they are found to be uniform and have chances of being altered. As mentioned in
the essay, assumptions can be personal knowledge although only up to a certain
extent but when they are defined as uniformities they extensively become shared
knowledge hence it becomes difficult to change them.
Overall, a uniform value already exists
there like gravity force but only after it is discovered it is believed to
provide knowledge or become a source of knowledge. Whereas a knowledge also
needs assumed uniformities to make it firm and reliable, for instance the
formula E=mc2 is useless until and unless speed c of light is
assumed to be a uniform value.
However, in contradiction, some assumed
uniformities like life force or right measurement of ingredient only exist in
our minds therefore in my opinion we should only believe and use uniformities
with strong scientific explanation to acquire knowledge. On the other hand, I
also agree to the fact that without assuming something uniform, there can be no
knowledge – as there is lack of faith of the knowledge being real.