This memorandum analyzes the issue of Child labor by
discussing the situation in Pakistan. Concludes by discussing various
approaches to the problem of Child labor and how the government and
non-government organizations- NGO can combat this problem.
Work of children in any work that denies offspring of their adolescence,
meddles with their capacity to go to consistent school, and that is physically,
rationally, socially or ethically risky and hurtful refers to Child labor.
The employment of kids for work in Pakistan, which causes
mental, physical, good and social mischief to children, is “Child Labour in
In the 1990s, 11 million kids were working in the nation,
half of which were younger than 10 evaluated by Human Rights Commission of
In the year 1996, the middle age for a youngster entering
the work compel was seven, down from eight years of age in 1994.
According to an evaluation, one fourth of the nation’s work
drive was comprised of children. Kids enter work constraint at 4 years old or 5
years of age making bangles and arm ornaments in Hyderabad, a city of Pakistan.
This isn’t only a circumstance of Hyderabad, however all other Kachi abadis of
a sustainable reduction in child labor therefore requires a policy response
that is cross-sectoral in nature and targets three broad groups: (1) children at
risk of involvement in child labor; (2) children already harmed by exposure to
child labor; and (3) children in the worst forms of child labor requiring
immediate, direct action.
is need to target children actually or potentially engaged in child labor, through
income and other support. Such support could be linked to children attending
school. It is clear that such support would be needed to achieve the Education
for All and the MDG 2 goals on education. In these interventions, greater
attention would be needed for vulnerable girls.
education spending has a dominant impact on children going to primary school.
It is worth noting that such spending has greater influence on girls’ school enrolment
than boys’, suggesting a greater sensitivity of female child to supply factors.
Greater attention to female child’s needs in location of schools and its
facilities would be beneficial.
formal or alternative/informal educational programs for girls, who are not enrolled
or have dropped out of school due to specific life circumstances including
child labor, poverty, abuse or exploitation to break the cycle of female
literacy and allocate appropriate resources to these programs. Also important
are advocacy campaigns and community focused programs to help eradicate gender
discrimination in schools, families and within the society at large. Issues in
such advocacy may be derived from the literature, which normally include
flexible scheduling, increased safety of schools, female teachers, and separate
hygiene and sanitation facilities for girls, distance of schools from home.
environment is a significant determinant of secondary enrollment. What this
is that government should lay emphasis on building secondary schools but also ensure
that economic environment creates incentives for parents to send children to secondary
school. It is to be noted that demand for secondary education may not overstep economic
environment. This does not mean lowering public spending on secondary education.
Contrarily, it suggests also creating opportunity for growth in per capita income
would improve responses from families to sending children to secondary school.
The main burden for a sustainable reduction of child labor and
increase in human capital investment rests on prevention. Clearly, sustainable
reductions in child labor cannot be attained without addressing the factors
causing children to enter work in the first place. By changing the economic and
social environment, mainly of the household, preventive policies should aim at
changing the “equilibrium” or long run level of child labor and school enrollment. Such policies are also the most relevant in terms of resources
needed. However, given the cross sectoral nature of the phenomena, programs
aimed at reducing child labor will also contribute to other objectives and vice
versa generating economies of scope in the use of the resources.
“Second chance” policies targeting children already exposed to
child labor, although likely less significant in resource terms, should not be
neglected. They are critical to avoiding large numbers of children entering
adulthood in a disadvantaged position, permanently harmed by early work
experiences. Children with little or no schooling will be in a weak position in
the labor market, at much greater risk of joining the ranks of the unemployed
and the poor. If left alone, these children and youth are likely to be in need
of other (more costly) remediation policies at a later stage of their life
“Direct action”, is
needed to identify and rescue laborers in forms of child labor that pose a
direct threat to their health and safety or that violate fundamental human
rights. “Unconditional” worst forms of child labor identified by ILO Convention
No. 182 include (a) all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such
as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or
compulsory labor, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for
use in armed conflict; (b) the use, procuring or offering of a child for
prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic
performances; and (c) the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit
activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as
defined in the relevant international treaties. These types of policies and programs
should aim to remove children immediately from work and provide them with
services for rehabilitation and reintegration into society.
Achieving sustainable reductions in child labor also requires a
supportive national political, legal and institutional environment. Political
commitment is needed to ensure that child labor is mainstreamed into broader
development plans and programs. This may include, for example, integrating
child labor as an explicit concern in Millennium Development Goals, Education
for All plans, and poverty reduction strategy plans. As child labor is an issue
that cuts across sectors and areas of ministerial responsibility, progress
against it requires that institutional roles are clearly delineated, and that
effective coordination and information-sharing structures are in place.