Io is runing system distributed and developed by Apple Inc, in 2007, and at this clip it was called iPhoneA operating system, this operating system developed at first for iPhoneA devices, after that iPhoneA OS was run on the other nomadic devise usage touch screen developed by Apple Inc, such as the iPod touch, the iPad, and more late the apple Television, there devises are call ( iDevise ) , after so was renamed iPhone OS to ( iOS ) to better reflect the fact that it runs on other iDevices.Io is based on the NeXTSTEP OS developed by NeXT Computer Inc, which was founded by Steve Jobs in 1985.
Then Apple was gained NeXT, and NeXTSTEP engineering made its manner into OS X.NeXTSTEP had a graphical user interface and many nucleus engineerings introduced by NeXTSTEP are still found in its replacements, such as application packages and Interface Builder. Interface Builder is widely used for both OS X and iOS Cocoa applications. [ 1 ]2.1.3 iOS Version HistoryThe version history of the Io began with the release of the first iPhone device in June 2007.
at this clip Apple ‘s Io did n’t hold an official name. So that the iPhone runs a version of “ OS Ten ” parent runing system until the release of the iPhone package development kit ( iPhone SDK ) on March, 2008. When introduced, it was named iPhone OS, and on June 7, 2010, It was renamed Io. [ 2 ]Apple provides updates to the Io ( iPhone OS ) operating system for the iPhone, the iPad and the iPod Touch, through iTunes and ( iDevices ) , Apple provide over-the-air package updates since Io 5.0 With the proclamation of iOS 5 on June, 2011, a USB connexion to iTunes there is no longer need to trip iOS devices ; informations synchronism through Apple ‘s iCloud service it can go on automatically and wirelessly.The Io 6 is most recent major update, it add around of 200 new characteristics. [ 3 ]
iPhone OS 1.x
This version of iPhone os was the first release for iPhone and iPod touch, on June,2007, some of the Features in iPhone os1 was The nucleus Io user interface, Mobile Safari web browser, A “ widescreen ” iPod.
iPhone os have many updated that attention deficit disorder characteristics or improved the apps. [ 4 ] [ 2 ]
iPhone OS 2.x
iPhone OS 2.x was the 2nd operating system release on iPhone 3G on July 11, 2008.
some of the characteristics for this version is introduces the App on the device itself, and doing applications available to iPhone and iPod Touch.Apple provided for developers a package development kit ( SDK ) tools to do applications for iPhone and iPod Touch. [ 2 ]
iPhone OS 3.x
This version was released on June 17, 2009, for the iPhone 3GS and avarable for iPhone 3G, iPhone ( 1st coevals ) , and iPod Touch ( 1st and 2nd Gen )This release added some characteristics such as MMS, and transcript and paste. and improved some characteristics. [ 2 ]
On June, 2010, iOS 4 was made available to the populace for the iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, iPhone 3G and iPod Touch ( 2nd and 3rd Gen ) and it was the first release that renamed merely “ Io ” .The iPhone ( 1st Gen ) , iPhone 3G and iPod Touch ( 1st Gen and 2nd Gen ) did non back up multitask characteristic in iOS 4, and the non able to put a place screen wallpaper.
While the iPhone 3GS, the iPhone 4, and the iPod Touch ( 3rd & A ; 4th Gen ) have all the characteristics enabled, such as set a place screen wallpaper and multitasking.On November 22, 2010 Apple released new update for iOS 4 compatibility with ipad[ 2 ]
Io 5 was major version of Io Mobile runing system from Apple Inc. iOS 5 introduced so many new characteristics. such as Notification Center, iTunes Wi-Fi Sync, iMessage, iCloud, and more other.
iOS 5 was available for iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, iPod Touch ( 2nd and 3rd Gen ) and ipad ( 1st and 2nd Gen ) . [ 5 ]
Apple Inc releases the latest major version of nomadic runing system was iOS 6, on June 11, 2012. older devices specifically the iPod Touch ( 3rd Gen ) and the iPad ( 1st Gen ) are no longer supported in Io 6. the devices Supported on this release include the iPod Touch ( 4th coevals ) onwards, the iPhone 3GS onwards, and the iPad2 onwards.The Apple Inc removed Two apps from iOS 6 are Google Maps and YouTube. and add many characteristics such as Apple Maps, Siri sweetenings, Notification Center, Facebook integrating, Passbook, Shared Photo Streams, FaceTime over cellular. [ 6 ] [ 7 ]
2 The Io Architecture
The iOS architecture consists of a figure of different beds. It comparable to the basic architecture in Mac OS X. At the general degree, Io is moving as an mediator between an underlying hardware and the applications which appear on the screen. It shows in Figure 1. [ 1 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ]iphone_architecture.jpg
Figure 1 Io Architecture [ 8 ]
The apps you create seldom talk direct to the underlying hardware. Alternatively, the apps communicate with the hardware through the set of chiseled system interfaces which protect applications from alterations in hardware.
This abstraction makes it easier to compose the applications that work systematically on devices with the different hardware capablenesss. [ 1 ] [ 9 ] [ 1 ] [ 10 ]As mentioned antecedently, iOS consists of different beds, higher-level beds contain more engineerings and sophisticated services ; at the lower beds of the Ios are the engineerings on which all apps rely and the cardinal services. [ 1 ] [ 10 ]These IOS beds can be displayed graphically as shown in the undermentioned figure:ios-layers.
pngFigure Layers of iOS [ 1 ]While composing codification, Equally much as possible, sooner use the top degree, alternatively of lower-level. The higher degree models are supplying object-oriented abstractions for lower degree concepts. These abstractions by and large make it much easier to compose codification because they minimize the sum of codification you have to compose and encapsulate potentially complex characteristics, such as sockets and togss. They abstract out lower-level engineerings, but they do n’t dissemble those engineerings from you.
The Lower-level models remain available to developers who prefer to utilize or who want to utilize facets of those models that are non exposed by the High beds.After we have identified the assorted beds that include iOS we can now look in more item at the services provided by each bed and the corresponding models that make those services available to us as applications developers.
2.1 Cocoa ([ 1 ]) Touch Layer [ 1 ] [ 9 ]
The Cocoa Touch is highest bed of the iOS stack and contains the key frameworks that are most normally used by application developers. This bed defines the basic application substructure and support for cardinal engineerings such as touch-based input, push presentments, multitasking, and many high-level system services. The Cocoa Touch is chiefly written in Objective-C, is based on the standard Mac OS X Cocoa API, and has been modified to run into the demands of the iDevices.
When planing your applications, you should look into if in this bed consist the engineerings that they run into your demands.
188.8.131.52 High-level Features [ 1,11 ]
The undermentioned subdivisions describe some of the models in the Cocoa Touch bed and the services they present.
184.108.40.206.1 Multitasking [ 1,11 ]
In iOS 4, or subsequently version when the user presses the Home button the applications non terminated ; alternatively, they shift to a background executing context. This engineering is ( multitasking ) . The multitasking support defined by User Interface Kit ( UIKit ) helps your application passage to and from the background province smoothly. After applications come ining the background most of them are suspended by the system shortly, to continue battery life.
This behavior allows an application to restart rapidly when it is relaunched without devouring battery power in the interim.
220.127.116.11.2 Auto Layout [ 1,11 ]
The car layout Introduced in iOS 6, the Cocoa Auto Layout system used to specify layout restraints for user interface elements. Constraints represent relationships between user interface elements such as “ this button should travel with this split position subview.
” Or “ these positions line up caput to tail. ”
1.3 External Display Support [ 1,11 ]
Introduced in iOS 3.2, external show support allows some iOS-based devices to be connected to an external show through a set of supported overseas telegrams.
1.1.4 Printing [ 1, 11 ]
Introduced in iOS 4.
2, the UIKit printing support allows applications to direct content wirelessly to nearby pressmans.
18.104.22.168.5 Peer-to-Peer Services [ 1,11 ]
Introduced in iOS 3.
0, the Game Kit model provides peer-to-peer connectivity over Bluetooth.
22.214.171.124 Cocoa Touch Frameworks [ 1,9,11 ]
The undermentioned subdivisions describe some of the models in the Cocoa Touch bed.
2.1 Event Kit UI Framework [ 1,9 ]
In iOS 4.0 introduced the Event Kit UI model to let the calendar activities to be accessing and redacting from within an application.
1.2.2 Address Book UI-Framework [ 1,9 ]
The Address Book UIframework is a programming interface contacts ( called address book ) , that you use to expose standard interfaces for redacting and for making new contacts and choosing bing contacts.
3 iAd Framework [ 1,9 ]
The iAd Framework is provide banner publicizing to let developers to include ad within their applications. All advertizements are provided by Apple ‘s ain iAd.
4 UIKit Framework ( UIKit.framework ) [ 1 ] [ 11 ]
UIKit is the model with which you will happen yourself use most frequently. The UIKit model defines the nucleus constituents of maps in an iOS application, from buttons and labels to postpone positions and event-driven apps in Io.Some of the cardinal characteristics of UIKit model are as follows:User interface directionApplication directionArtworks and windowing supportPrinting supportMultitasking support ;transcript, Cut, and paste supportObjects stand foring the criterion system positions and controlsSupport for inspiring user-interface contentSupport for text and web contentAccessibility support for handicapped usersPDF creative activityLocal presentment programming and bringingSupport for the Apple Push Notification Service