Itis approximated that there are more than 2500 species of mosquitoes worldwide.Mosquitoes belong to the insect order Diptera, the family of Culicidae.Mosquitoes are thought to be weak fliers but they can fly as far as 1 to 1.5miles in one hour.
Eggs hatch when they’re exposed to water.(EPA, 2017) Mosquito Wrigglers or commonly known as Mosquito Larva (plural:larvae) are aquatic, and has large head and thorax and narrow, wormlikestomach; they typically hold simply under the water surface, breathing airthrough tubes at the end of the abdomen. If they are disturbed, they wriggledownward. Larvae are continuously feeding on account that maturation calls fora massive quantity of energy and food. They cling with their heads down and thebrushes through their mouths filtering any small food to be eaten toward theirmouths to nourish the developing larvae. They feed on algae, plankton, fungiand bacteria and other microorganisms. The larvae of a few mosquito species arecannibalistic, feeding on larvae of different mosquitoes: the largestmosquitoes recognized are Toxorhynchites and some Psorophora, they arepredators of other mosquito larvae that share their habitat.
Their larvae aremuch larger than different mosquito larvae. They live in water from 4 to 14days relying on water temperature. (AMCA, Retrieved: December 1, 2017). Aslarvae feed, they grow, and as they get large, they also shed their skin andthis stage is known as “Instar”.
After mosquito larvae shed they will undergothe next stage in their life cycle, which is the pupa. (Mosquito critiques,Retrieved: September 27, 2017)ThePupa (plural: pupae) also referred to as “tumblers,” are very energetic andalso like the larva, they stay in the water. (Entomology and Plant Pathology,2017) Pupa looks as if a curled commaand that also grasp just beneath the water surface, breathing thru air tubes.
(MDC discover Nature, 2013) They generally live in water from 1 to 4 days,depending upon the species and temperature they are in. The pupa is lighterthan the water this is why they tend to float. (AMCA, Retrieved: September 27,2017). The system includes the breakdown of the larval organs and thereplacement of tissues with the adult ones. (Entomology and Plant Pathology,2017) (University of Florida, 2015). The pupa does no longer eat, but it doesnot mean it is an inactive level. After 3 or 4 days, the adult mosquito willemerge from the pupa and after a duration of rest, unfolds its wings and fliesaway. (University of Florida, 2015).
InAdult Mosquitoes the male mosquito commonly is being hatched first, and loiternear the breeding site, waiting for the ladies. In common, a female mosquitolives three to six weeks, but they could live up to five months. The male’slifespan is a lot shorter than the female’s.
(College of Florida, 2015). Onlyfemale mosquitoes require a blood meal and eat animals that have warm or coldblood and birds. Stimuli that have an effect on biting (blood feeding) includean aggregate of carbon dioxide, temperature, moisture, scent, coloration, andmotion.
Male mosquitoes do no longer bite, however they feed on the nectar offlowers or different suitable sugar source. Acquiring a blood meal (protein) isessential for the production of egg, however, typically both male and femalemosquitoes are nectar feeders for their nutrition. (AMCA, Retrieved: September27, 2017) The Adult commonly has three kindsof species: Aedes Mosquitoes (Aedes Aegypti), Anopheles Mosquito (AnophelesSPP.), Culex Mosquito (Culex spp.). (Rentokil, Retrieved: September 27, 2017).Aedes Mosquitoes every so often called “floodwater” mosquitoesbecause flooding is important for their eggs to hatch.
(Craig Freudenrich,Ph.D., 2017). Egg to adult degree takes 6 – 8 days. The adult mosquito usuallyhas black and white markings on their body. They are normally seen in container breeder specifically man-madecontainers with clean water. (Rentokil, Retrieved: September 27, 2017).
Aedes and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes are painfuland chronic biters they commonly bite mammals (especially humans). They searchfor a blood meal early n the morning, at dusk (crepuscular feeders) and intothe evening. A few are diurnal (daytime biters) mainly on cloudy days and inshaded areas.
(AMCA, Retrieved: September 27, 2017). They include such speciesas the yellow-fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito(Aedes albopictus). The Anopheles mosquito is thoughtuniversally as the Malaria Mosquito species because it’s considered the numberone vector of the disease. (Mosquito Magnet, Retrieved: September 27, 2017).Egg to adult usually takes 6 – 10 days. Adults have pale and dark marks on itswings and they are resting 45-degree angle to the surface. They usually stay inpick clean and unpolluted water. They bite at night and rest indoor and outdoorhowever it depends on species.
(Rentokil, Retrieved: September 27, 2017). The Culex Mosquito are the mainvector for Japanese B – Encephalitis, they’re also painful and chronic biters,however, they choose to attack at dusk and after dark. They readily enterdwellings for blood food.
Culex mosquitoes are generally weak fliers and do notgo far away from their home, although they have been known to fly up to 2miles. Those females that were born in late summer time are searching forsheltered regions where they “hibernate” until spring. Warm weatherbrings them out again on the search for water on which to lay their eggs.(AMCA, Retrieved: September 27, 2017). Egg to adult stage usually takes 6 – 10days.
Adult Culex Mosquitoes has thorax, legs, and veins at the wings theirabdomen are always blunt. They may be typically located in polluted stagnantwater and drains. (Rentokil, Retrieved: September 27, 2017). There are numerous illnesses which canarouse if there could be a mosquito outbreak. The usual sicknesses are Malaria,Yellow Fever, and Dengue Fever. Malaria is a life-threateningailment. It’s generally transmitted via the bite of an infected Anophelesmosquito. Infected mosquitoes bring the Plasmodium parasite.
When this mosquitobites you, the parasite will be released into your bloodstream. Once theparasites are inside your body, they will go to the liver, wherein they mature.After several days, the mature parasites enter the bloodstream and begin toinfect red blood cells. Within 48 to 72 hours, the parasites within the redblood cells will multiply, causing the infected cells to burst open. Theparasites retain to contaminate red blood cells, ensuing in signs and symptomsthat occur in cycles that last 2 to 3 days at a time. The signs of malarianormally develop within 10 days to 4 weeks following the infection. Theinfected human may encounter high fever, headache, nausea, vomiting,stomachache, diarrhea, anemia, muscle pain, convulsions, and bloody stools.
(Burke, 2017) If not treated, malaria can quickly become life-threatening byway of disrupting the blood supply to vital organs. (Herriman, 2015) Yellow fever is a serious, potentiallylethal flu-like disorder spread by via mosquitoes. It’s characterized by a highfever and jaundice. Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and eyes, that’s whythis ailment is called yellow fever. The Flavivirus reasons yellow fever, andit’s transmitted whilst an infected mosquito bite you. Yellow fever develops quickly, signs andsymptoms may additionally arouse 3 to 6 days after exposure. The commonsymptoms are headaches, muscle aches, joint aches, chills, fever, reducedurination, stomach ache, vomiting (from time to time with blood), heart rhythmproblems. There is no cure for yellow fever but there are a few treats to helpthe immune device like getting sufficient fluids, possibly through veins,getting oxygen, keeping a healthy blood strain, getting blood transfusions,having dialysis if you enjoy kidney failure, getting treatment for otherinfections that may expand.
(Story, 2016) Dengue fever also referred to asbreakbone fever, it’s a disease due to a family of viruses which can betransmitted by using mosquitoes. The symptoms of dengue fever include severejoint and muscle ache, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, eye pain, rashes,bleeding. Dengue fever has no remedy or treatment.
(Cunha, 2017) There are two oils that will be used in theexperiment the eucalyptus oil and the peppermint oil. Eucalyptus Oil is thecommon name for purified oil from the Eucalyptus leaf. Eucalyptus is from theplant family Myrtaceae which is indigenous to Australia.
Eucalyptus oil hasbeen also used as a pharmaceutical, antiseptic, repellent, flavoring, fragranceand industrial uses. The leaves of selected Eucalyptus species are steamdistilled to extract the eucalyptus oil. Peppermint is a cross between watermint andspearmint which is called as a hybrid mint. This plant originated in Europe andthe Middle East. The peppermint oil has a high concentration of pulegone andmethane which can repel some pest insects, including mosquitos, and has used inorganic gardening. The peppermint oil is also known to as a short-termfundamental for irritable bowel syndrome and has used in traditional medicineailments because of its cooling effect it is used for muscle pain, nerve pain,relief from itching, or as a fragrance.
Too much use of peppermint may causeirritation and mimic heartburn. Peppermint may have memory- andalertness-enhancing properties because of its aroma.