Job Redesign and Workplace Rewards Assessment Tonya Bland PSY/320 October 8, 2012 Elizabeth Riegner Job Redesign and Workplace Rewards Assessment Job redesign and workplace awards are ways to improve employee performance and the organization’s productivity. It is important that the organization get the maximum from an employee while at the same the employee should be satisfied in the workplace. In this paper, I will address the system of goal-setting, performance evaluation, and workplace rewards that impact productivity, both positively and negatively, and job satisfaction at my place of employment.
Before I discuss my position as a correctional officer, I will first explain job redesign and workplace rewards, and how they can affect workplace motivation. Job redesign creates and reconstitutes positions at the workplace according to the functions and capabilities of the worker that are both appealing to individuals and in alignment with the organization’s strategy and vision (Hackman, 1999). The term work redesign refers here to activities that involve the alteration of specific jobs with the intent of improving both productivity and the quality of employee work experiences.
Organizations can use job redesign to improve the procedures of the organization through effective problem-solving and increased adaptability to changing environmental conditions. Any inconsistencies that exist between the employee and the job can be handled by this reconstruction. It involves the planning of the job including its contents, the methods of performing the job, and how it relates to other jobs within the organization. According to Davis (1997), “Job redesign can improve organizational performance through job rotation, horizontal job enlargement, vertical job enlargement and the creation of autonomous working groups. Job rotations allow the workers to do a variety of jobs making so everyone can experience the simple jobs and the hard jobs. This enables the employees with the hard jobs not to get burnt out on that one position. It is a good idea for swap places so they can learn other tasks. This will increase their job experience. One job may come with more training and responsibility will be an advantage on the employee’s work history. Davis (1997) explains, “Added responsibility for planning and for quality control indicates to a person that he or she is being trusted to exercise judgment.
Vertical job enlargement gives the worker more responsibilities in handling his or her job. It is also known as job enrichment because it contributes to self-esteem. He further explains, “Jobs must be meaningful and challenging, provide feedback on performance, and call on their decision-making skills. Jobs must be designed in such a way that they allow the organization to take full advantage of technological breakthroughs without alienating the workers affected by change. Redesigning jobs allow companies to retain skilled workers, while enhancing output. Job redesign can be handled in many ways. The specifications of the job are changed to provide employees with additional responsibility for planning, setting up, and checking their own work; for making decisions about work methods and procedures; for establishing their own pace; and for dealing directly with the clients who receive the results of the work. Also, the work may be designed as a group task, in which case a team of workers is given autonomous responsibility for a large and meaningful module of work.
Such teams typically have the authority to manage their own social and performance processes as they see fit; they receive feedback and often rewards as a group; and they may even be charged with the selection, training, and termination of their own members (Hackman, 1999). Workplace reward is a commonly used method to motivate employees. These rewards motivate the employees and enhance the quality of their work life. It increases their on-the-job productivity and encourages them to perform better. Workplace rewards can also create job satisfaction. Employees that are not satisfied with their jobs will perform the work as though they are not.
According to Sims (2002), motivation is the process of satisfying internal needs through actions and behaviors. It is concerned with a composite of mental and physical drives, combined with the environment that makes people behave the way they do. He states, “The importance of employee motivation to increase productivity and stronger customer relationship. Motivation is a very important for an organization because it provides benefits such as putting human resources into action. Every concern requires physical, financial and human resources to accomplish these goals.
Evans (1986) states that motivation can also be conceived of as whatever it takes to encourage workers to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs. This can be done by rewarding employees with salary, wages, staff training and condition of service, incentives, information availability and communication. Job satisfaction is a result of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. According to (Evans, 1986), it is generally recognized in the organizational behavior field that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude.
Attitudes affect performance, productivity, effectiveness, and the decision to stay or leave or to stay, but put in minimal effort. Each employee will not be the same, so there may be a majority of different motivational strategies that has to be used. One employee may be highly motivated by money while another employee may find job satisfaction to be more appealing. Overall job redesign and workplace rewards increases job satisfaction, as well as increased motivation and better performance. Employee motivation is affected by factors such as challenging work, autonomy, responsibility, growth and development and a sense of accomplishment.
Job satisfaction is affected by factors like task clarity, skill utilization, task significance and relationship with co-workers and supervisors. Redesigning jobs can improve performance if it is aimed at providing employees with satisfying jobs and fulfilling their needs. As a correctional officer I monitor inmates, making sure they follow the rules. My duty is to protect them as well as other staff members, and to keep them confined. Correctional officers are hired to ensure the public safety by providing for the care, custody, control, and maintenance of inmates.
We do this by maintaining security and observing inmate conduct and behavior to prevent disturbances and escapes. We must also manage and communicate with inmates, peers and supervisors, direct inmate movement, maintain key, tool, and equipment control, distribute authorized items to inmates, as well as maintain health, safety, and sanitation. Most of the times, I am in direct contact with the inmates; therefore I must be very aware for my safety and familiar with my surroundings because I am locked in with them and also unarmed.
In a sense, my job as a correctional officer involves self management and sense of choice. Although there are three supervisors who manage me, I handle situations on the post that I am assigned to. As a correctional officer, I have the authority to instruct and supervisor inmates. I am responsible for the welfare of other inmates and other staff; therefore I must be able to remain calm when an emergency occurs and make sudden decisions, even under stress, that will not jeopardize the safety of the inmates or other staff.
Behavioral change is most often an inside job; and for lasting change to occur, a level of intrinsic motivation is needed (Lambert ; Hogan, 2009). Dealing with inmates sometimes can be very stressful. The only intrinsic motivation in my job is when I am able to get revenge on a inmate that has been rude and disrespectable towards me. Part of my duty is to also discipline the inmates by writing disciplinary reports. When they receive a disciplinary report, they are charged four dollars, and lose their store call or sometimes earn a couple of weeks in solitary confinement.
I know that I have done my job when I see that they are upset when they receive the disciplinary report. This may be awful to say, but to be able to get revenge really inspires me to do my job and not let them get away with anything. There are a small number of rewards at my job, but many have been depleted since the economy went down. At Thanksgiving and Christmas, we receive cash gift cards. During employee recognition week, we get free lunch for a week and a gas card. The value of these rewards has decreased over the years as so the number of staff.
There are more than fifteen open positions for correctional officers at my job. Employee turnover is a serious problem in the field of corrections. Lambert and Hogan (2009) states, “High turnover, especially among staff that are relatively new, means that monetary and other resources invested in recruitment, hiring, and training do not produce desired returns. In turn, this situation can result in fewer resources available for initiatives to promote staff retention and development. ” The rewards that we now receive have little or no effect on motivating employees.
The problem not only lies in salary and benefits, but the high turnover rate has put a strain on the remaining employees causing a lot of stress and burn out from working long hours and not being able to take an adequate amount of vacation time. The development of goals at my job is often self motivated. For many officers, the job as a correctional officer is used as a stepping stone to promotions to higher positions or other forms of law enforcement. Those goals can be to become a Sergeant, to later be promoted on up the chain of command to be a Warden.
Many training programs and classes can be used as experience to get higher paying jobs in other law enforcement careers. One goal that I have set as for myself is to move up in law enforcement by attaining my bachelor’s degree in criminal justice. At my job there is an education incentive award for officers that complete either their associates degree or bachelor degree while employed by the Department of Corrections. This is a form of extrinsic motivation to get many employees as possible to attain a college degree. On my job, job satisfaction is a term that is foreign to many of us.
So many issues have developed involving our economic situation that has had an effect on me liking and disliking my job. One of the main situations that affect job satisfaction is the shortage of officers, another is pay. There has been an increase in almost everything but our salary. It has been almost ten years since I have received a raise. For many years, the Department of Corrections has ignored these issues and the small number of goals and awards that they offer do not compensate for the issues affecting employee’s motivation such as improved salaries, benefits, and working conditions. References Davis, L. 1997). Developments in job design. In P. B. Warr (Ed. ), Personal goals and work design. London: Wiley. Evans, M. (1986). Organizational behavior: The central role of motivation. Journal of Management 12 (2), 203. Hackman, R. (1999). Work Redesign and Motivation. Professional psychology, American Psychological Association. Lambert, E. G. , ; Hogan, N. (2009). The importance of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in shaping turnover intent: A test of a causal model. Criminal Justice Review, 34, 96–118. Sims, B. (2002). Effective Motivation. Retrieved at http://safetyincentives. com/effective-motivation/