In Marxian Socialism, the proletariat instigates a violent uprising against the bourgeoisie and ultimately overthrows the oppressive upper class ND initiates a dictatorship government by the proletariat for the proletariat. While most of these Views were deemed highly radical and not widely accepted, Karl Marx did speculate about the future of European society and the positioning of socioeconomic classes. In his opinion, Karl Marx believed that European society would be brutally divided into two classes, the bourgeoisie and proletariat.
However, as a result of a few social and economic influences, Karl Marx was incorrect in his conjecture that the people of nineteenth century Europe would be diversely split into TTY. To opposing social classes. In spite of growing occupational conflicting interests, the middle classes of Europe were loosely tied together by a particular lifestyle and culture. Above all, food in a middle class family was the largest item in the household budget consuming roughly 25 percent of the family’s total income.
Spending time on food and drink was popular as the occurrence of the dinner party was common among wealthier middle class homes, occurring roughly once a week, while more modest families would settle for around once a month. When a family was able to employ at least one full-time maid they had officially crossed the boundary of the working classes to what contemporary scholars refer to ass the “Servant keeping classes. ” Altogether, food and servants absorbed a full 50 percent of income at all levels of the middle class.
In addition, by the twentieth century, middle class people were also quite clothes conscious, in particular, middle-class women. The introduction of department stores, factories, and the sewing machine all helped provide affordable clothing in a wide variety for consumers. However, rich businessmen began to dedicate considerably less time on business and an increasingly large amount of time on “culture” and the art of easy living than could be done in less fortunate families. Though middle-class people had relatively expansive tastes in material items, they all could agree upon a strict code of behavior and ethics.
Such a code laid great stress on the aspects of hard work and discipline as well as encouraging personal achievement. Citizens who fell victim to crime or poverty were seen to be the doomsayers of their own fate as they were supposed to be responsible for their own actions. An increasingly diverse and growing middle class was a key aspect hat Karl Marx did not include in his predictions of European society. The working class found ways to express their leisure delights and further enhance their sense of individuality. Drinking remained the unquestionably favorite recreational activity for the working classes.
Generally, however, heavy problem drinking declined in the late nineteenth century as it was seen as less socially acceptable. Sports remained a passion for working class recreation as traditional “cruel sports” were replaced with modern commercialese spectator sports sick as racing and soccer. With the introduction of such sporting events, gambling became a profuse activity and expanded the incentive toward literacy. Music halls became popular places to frequent as working-class counterparts of the original middle-class opera were developed throughout Europe.
The changing familial structure allowed for greater social guarantees for children and better care for the young. With less children to bear, families could provide better for the children that they had by administering university-level education and economic stability. With this base as which to build off of, young adults were able to stay afloat concentrically and not fall into poverty but indeed rise in class. Additionally, society became more diverse than ever before in European history, but also less unified.
The economic class structure of nineteenth century Europe could be defined as aristocracy (bourgeoisie), middle classes, and working classes. The aristocracy, or bourgeoisie, accounted for around five percent of the population but possessed roughly 33% of the wealth. Middle-class people received around another third off all income leaving approximately one more third for the bottom 80% of all people. Economic specialization enabled society to produce more effectively and in turn created more new social groups than it destroyed.
These emerging social groups constructed a very diverse middle-class based around occupation. In the upper middle-class, there were smaller factory owners than the landed aristocracy but they tended to lead a near bourgeoisie lifestyle. The solid middle-class consisted of educated professionals such as doctors, lawyers, and engineers. These people led comfortable lives and could occupy the upper management of a factory. Lastly, the lower middle-class contained the usual small business owner and factory supervisor. Even more intricate was the occupations of the working classes.
The working-class consisted of highly skilled workers at the top, also known as labor aristocracy, which were construction or factory supervisors and were considered experts in their professions. Below the highly skilled came the semi-skilled workers who generally worked in factories and were overworked and abused in mass production. Finally came the unskilled workers who never landed guaranteed jobs but when they did it almost always consisted of hard, manual labor. Many of these people completed and performed valuable services to the community but were normalized and divided, united only by the shared reward of meager earnings.
The greatest component of the unskilled group was domestic service, as in Great Britain alone, one out of every seven employed persons was a domestic servant in 1911 In conclusion, Karl Marx was inaccurate in his forecast that the people of Europe during the nineteenth century would be radically divided into two conflicting social classes, as a result of several social and economic consequences. An increasing middle-class became a clear indicator that Karl Marx was incorrect in his assumption. This middle-class carried out social customs, consumed products, and developed its own sense of class ethics that was unique to its own sect.
A changing family structure, in which children numbered less but held a greater chance of surviving through childhood, allowed for young adults to initiate a family and maintain a consistent socioeconomic class. Above all, a very disproportionate and skewed distribution of wealth meant that a relatively small upper-class possessed a large amount of the accountable wealth. The ever expanding variety of middle-class occupations created a society more diverse than ever before but also a society relatively divided by wealth differences.
Working- class occupations for the labor aristocracy were generally upper-level management positions in factories or construction sites. The semi-skilled people of the working classes generally occupied jobs at factories and were seen as the “true proletariat’ by socialist such as Karl Marx and Frederick Engel’s. Lastly, the unskilled workers drifted from day job to day job usually executing demanding labor that provided little in wages. Karl Mar’s theory may be incorrect, however, European class society was split into many intricate sub classes each associating themselves with each other and not under one united roof.