Land per year over the next few decades.

Land degradation can be defined as a change in one or more of lands properties that result in a declinein land quality the extent to which land degradation affect agricultural productivity and poses a threat toproductivity growth and food security is fundamentally influenced by economic, environmental andinstitutional factors. Furthermore, the important role of the farmer responses to land degradation and itspotential impacts on agriculture productivity and food security. Recent estimates suggest that 5 –6million hectares of arable land worldwide are irreversibly lost each year as a result of soil erosion,salinization and other degradation processes. Degradation induced yield losses may become moresignificant in relation to yield growth in the future, as yield growth rates are projected to fall below onepercent per year over the next few decades. This is likely to be more sever in arid and semi-arid regionsdue to combination of resource; economic factors and infrastructure lack. The process of rehabilitation ofdegraded lands is essentially a long-term development that requires the enactment of appropriatepolicies and supporting institutions as well as enabling environment that ensure the farmers participationand other land users. Technology development, acquisition and adaptation are central for combatingland degradation. Various technologies can be employed to benefit and to have a positive influence onthe lives of the people. New technologies innovations in fields such as land use and soil waterconservations are needed most. Equally, research needs to move from research Centre sand stations tofarmer’s lands, who are the target beneficiaries. The experiences gained and the know-how achieved inthese canters need to be harnessed for the benefit of the land users in the Mediterranean where landdegradation is widely increasing, priorities, should be directed for further progress inunderstanding and addressing the links between resource quality, agricultural productivity and foodsecurity including targeted improvements in data analysis, technology development and policy. Thoseissues will be discussed in this paper.Definition of Key TermsSoilThe Hague International Model United Nations 2011 | 23 rd – 28 th of January 2011Page 2 of 8 | Research ReportThe upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of amixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles.DegradationThe condition or process of degrading or being degraded.Salinization:Salinization refers to a buildup of salts in soil, eventually to toxic levels for plants. (3,000 – 6,000 ppm saltresults in trouble for most cultivated plants.) Salt in soils decreases the osmotic potential of the soil sothat plants can't take up water from it. When soils are salty, the soil has greater concentrations of solutethan does the root, so plants can't get water from soil. (Remember osmosis — water "tries" to accomplishdilution — it moves from areas with lower concentration of dissolved substances to areas with higherconcentration?) The salts can also be directly toxic, but plant troubles usually result primarily frominability to take up water from salty soils.Land qualityThe ability of the land to perform its function of sustainable agriculture production and enable it torespond to sustainable land management. Class 1 is the class with the most desirable quality and class9 is the class with the poorest quality.Soil ResilienceThe ability of the land to revert to a near original production level after it is degraded, as bymismanagement. Land with low soil resilience is permanently damaged by degradation.Soil PerformanceThe ability of the land to produce (as measured by yield of grain, or biomass) under moderate levels ofinputs in the form of conservation technology, fertilizers, pest and disease control. Land with low soilperformance is generally not suitable for rehabilitation, Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to somedegree of its former state, after some process (industry, natural disasters, etc.) has resulted in itsdamage.Food securityDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24 th – 25 st of February 2017Research Report | Page 3 of 8People are considered food secure when they have availability and adequate access at all times tosufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Food security analysts look at thecombination of the following three main elements, food availability, access, and utilizationFood availabilityFood must be available in sufficient quantities and on a consistent basis.It considers stock andproduction in a given area and the capacity to bring in food from elsewhere, through trade or aid.Food accessPeople must be able to regularly acquire adequate quantities of food, through purchase, homeproduction, barter, gifts, borrowing or food aid.Food utilizationConsumed food must have a positive nutritional impact on people. It entails cooking, storage andhygiene practices, individual’s health, water and sanitations, feeding and sharing practices within thehousehold.Background InformationLand degradation will remain an important global issue for the 21st century because of itsadverse impact on agronomic productivity, the environment and its effect on food security andthe quality of life. It is a massive, global environmental problem (FAO/UNAD/UNEP1994;FAO/UNEP, 1995; Scerr, 1999). Overall degraded lands worldwide are about 18.1millionkm2where 92% to mismanagement and 38% to overgrazing. Land degradation, a decline inland quality caused by human activities has been a major global issue during the 20th centuryand will remain high on the international agenda in 21stcentury. The importance ofdegradation among global issues is enhanced because of its impact on world food securityand quality of the environment. High population density is not necessarily related to landdegradation that determines the extent of degradation.The Mediterranean, this degradation is manifested in general decline of soil fertility andsoil structure, degradation of irrigated land, and erosion of biological diversity eventually leadingFifth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium „Agrosym 2014″709to the diminution ofaffected land’s biological potential to sustain life. In the region, continued process ofThe Hague International Model United Nations 2011 | 23 rd – 28 th of January 2011Page 4 of 8 | Research Reportdesertification has now far reaching sequences: it manifests itself as a problem of sustainabledevelopment, its sever negative impacts on the socio-economic conditions, its responsibilityfor reducing the regenerative capacity for affected ecosystem and its profound impacts to thewide spread poverty (Eswaran et al., 2001).Land degradation can be considered in terms ofloss of actual or potential productivity or utility as a result of natural or atrophic factors. Incontext of productivity, land degradation results from a mismatch between land quality and landuse (Beinorth et al., 1991).Land degradation indicates temporary or permanent long-termdecline in ecosystem function and productive capacity. It may refer to the destruction ordeterioration in health of terrestrial ecosystem, thus effecting the associated biodiversity,natural ecological processes and ecosystem resilience. It also considers the reductionand loss of biological / economic productivity and complexity of crop lands, pasture,woodland, forest, etc. Across the world over 20% of cultivated areas, 30% of forests and 10%of grasslands are suffering from degradation, affecting about 1.5 billion people thisdegradation may be the result of numerous factors or combination thereof includinganthropogenic activities such as unsustainable land management practices and climaticvariations (Bai et al., 2008).Land degradation occurs in the form of depletion or total lossvegetative cover, and loss of its biophysical and economic productivity through exposure of thesoil surface to wind erosion and water erosion, and through salinization and water logging,leading to deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. The continuedloss of vegetation through salinization and human activities also depletes the world’sbiodiversity, and it reduces the ability of natural environment for carbon sequestration,Major Countries and Organizations InvolvedSub-Saharan Africa (SSA)Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has experienced the most severe land degradation in the world.Given that livelihoods of the majority of the rural poor heavily depend on natural resources,countries in the region have designed a number of policies and strategies to address landdegradation and to enhance productivity. However investment from both countries and theirdevelopment partners has remained low, especially for livestock, which accounts for the largestarea degraded. Our results show that conversion of grassland to cropland and deforestation arethe major factors driving land use/cover change (LUCC). One of the major reasons leadingfarmers to convert grassland to cropland is the low livestock productivity. The increasingdemand for livestock products provides an ample opportunity to the value of grasslands and inturn livestock productivity. Given that donor funding accounts for the largest share ofDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24 th – 25 st of February 2017Research Report | Page 5 of 8expenditure on agriculture and natural resource management in most SSA countries,econometric analysis showed that donor funding reduces the cost of land degradation. Thispositions donors in a position of influencing efforts to combat land degradation in SSA.Saudi ArabiaThe problem of land degradation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia is not a newphenomenon, but during the last decade it has grown to be a serious threat to the delicatedesert ecosystems, and also to the urban and industrial areas, due to an increase in sandmovement. The area under investigation is situated on the Gulf coast north of Jubail and isapproximately 20 km in width centered along the coastline. The total area is almost 1000 km2.Eight vegetation types were classified according to the dominant and co-dominant species. Acomparative study of the vegetation in a fenced, non-grazed area and in an open grazed areashowed that the impact of grazing and recreational activities have largely reduced the value ofthe rangelands. The reduction in species diversity and density leads to an increase in wind andsand dynamics. Exposed roots, giant ripples, changes in the extension of inland and new activedunes could be observed in many parts of the study area. It could be proved that most inland inthe area are pure deflation features with considerable dynamic due to the reduction invegetation cover during the recent years. The monitoring of vegetation density was carried outduring helicopter flights with the help of GPS and a video camera. Image processing on apersonal computer allowed accurate calculations of vegetation density. Observations on activedune fields in the area showed that the size of the dune fields almost doubled in 15 months.Tests in small enclosures showed that there is a potential for natural recovery even in severelydamaged areas. In just one year without grazing and with average precipitation there is asignificant difference in vegetation cover. Strict grazing management and camping regulationsare required to prevent further degradation and allow the recovery of damaged ecosystems.Community involvement and education is necessary for the development of an understanding ofregulations and the need for preservation.ZimbabweThe extraction of sand and clay is one of the major drivers of land degradation in Zimbabwe’surban, semi urban, rural service centres centre as well as growth points. , According toassessments carried out by the Environmental Management Agency in the past decade, sandThe Hague International Model United Nations 2011 | 23 rd – 28 th of January 2011Page 6 of 8 | Research Reportand clay extraction is done mainly for construction. Development Goal number 15 aims atcombating desertification as well as halting and reversing land degradation. Most of the minersof sand and clay do so from undesignated points and do not rehabilitate the land afterwards.The abandoned sites are characterised by huge open pits which are a death trap to humanbeings and animals. Limited livelihood options to the urban dwellers have worsened thecountry’s disposition to illegal sand mining.Timeline of events1994Date Description of eventWorld Day to Combat Desertification and Implementation of the InternationalStrategy for Disaster ReductionRelevant UN Treaties and Events? 17 June? 19 April? 23 March? 12 Dec? 22 OctoberPrevious Attempts to solve the IssueAfrican Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR100)—AFR100, an African-led initiativefunded by the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and the World ResourcesInstitute, aims to bring 100 million hectares of degraded forest landscapes into the process of restorationby 2030. The initiative seeks to carry out the restoration project in a balanced way that includes women,local communities, and vulnerable people.Asia Soil Conservation Network for the Humid Tropics (ASOCON)—Formed in 1989 with the support ofUnited Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the FAO, ASOCON strives to assist membercountries in developing and disseminating soil and water conservation practices for small-scale farmers.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24 th – 25 st of February 2017Research Report | Page 7 of 8It is composed of a coordinating unit at the Ministry of Forestry in Jakarta and National CoordinatingCommittees established by China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, andVietnam. Hosting regional workshops and training,International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC)—Established in 1966, ISRIC is anindependent institute in The Netherlands that prioritizes work in three areas: soil data and soil mapping,application of soil data in global development issues, and training and education. To celebrate its 50thanniversary this year, ISRIC has many events planned throughout 2016 which will highlight its historyand focus on its future..The Red Soil Project—This project, with offices in Uganda and Canada, teaches the building blocks ofsustainable agriculture to African farmers to improve productivity and create self-sufficient communitieswhich can be sustainable without the help of aid. To reach rural farmers, The Red Soil Project partnerswith local community organizations and utilizes their existing community networks to deliver hands-onworkshops in soil building, integrated pest management, rocket stoves, agroforestry, and animalhusbandry.Rodale Institute—The Rodale Institute, located in Pennsylvania, conducts independent agriculturalresearch in the field with the objective of giving farmers the knowledge and tools to improve soil health,yields, and crop quality while simplifying farm management. By helping to build healthy soils throughorganic practices, the Rodale Institute wants to ensure that people feel confident that they are feedingtheir families food that is good for them and the world around them.Society for Ecological Restoration (SER)—Comprised of ecosystem activists around the world, SER is anonprofit organization focused on promoting and advancing the sciences and practices of ecologicalrestoration. It aims to address desertification, land and water degradation, and associated loss ofsustainable livelihoods. SER also has its own scientific and technical peer-reviewed journal titled”Restoration Ecology.”Soil Association—Based in the United Kingdom, Soil Association campaigns for healthy, humane, andsustainable food, farming, and land use. The organization works in schools through the Food for LifePartnership to improve health outcomes for children. Additionally, through the Soil AssociationCertification, the U.K.’s largest organic certification body, Soil Association creates and developsconsumer trust and knowledge about organic food.Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI)—SCSI is a governmental agency founded in 1907 thatoperates under the Ministry for the Environment in Iceland. Recognizing that soil degradation is thelargest environmental problem in Iceland, SCSI is dedicated to working both on the large-scale,The Hague International Model United Nations 2011 | 23 rd – 28 th of January 2011Page 8 of 8 | Research Reportpolicymaking level, as well as on the small-scale level with reclamation projects. SCSI also is part of theUnited Nations University’s Land Restoration Training Programme.Possible SolutionsGardening, Planting vegetation and grass can stop heavy rains from damaging our land and it protectsthe topsoil from being washed away. Also, Afforestation and Reforestation, Planting trees can preventflooding which causes soil movement and erosion. Conservation Tillage avoid stripping a whole fielduncovered because it can cause harmful effect on the soil. Leaving a few vegetation or grass can keepthe soil at bay. Another way is by constructing Wind Breakers, Fences, bushes, hedges and trees canprevent gusty winds from damaging our soil. Also bym Using Fertilizers Applying fertilizers and compostcan make the soil healthy and more resistant to soil erosion. Another solution is by the responsibleIndustrial and Chemical Waste Management, Proper disposal of industrial byproducts and chemicalwaste can insure the safety and sustainability of our land. Lastly by preventing and reducing landdegradation has become an important task in the protection of our environment. Civil Engineering FirmGodfrey-Hoffman & Hodge in Connecticut has made a firm stand against land degradation and isproviding clients with Sustainability engineering services to safeguard the availability of our environmentfor the future generation. to upcoming bad weather so they can begin to prepare themselves for times ofhardship.Bibliography"Human Induced Land Degradation