Language Gender Essay

The Impact of Grammatical Competence with Discourse in Speaking Proficiency at SDKKK II Batam 2011/2012 Created by Frangky Silitonga, S. Pd, M. SI/ Lecturer Putera Batam University ABSTRACT Language is a mean of communication used in daily activities. There are aspects needed to be concerned in the use of language, especially foreign language. One of the most common foreign language used is English. In Indonesia, although, English is sound familiar by most of people, the ability of using English is still not maximal.

In the use of English language, one of the most important aspects is grammar, for example grammar orientation—tenses, Simple past tense and simple present tense, these are two particular parts in grammar. Simple past tense indicates the past condition that has passed. Simple present tense is used to describe the habit or event happening now. The tendency of tenses use is usual in daily communication, for instance, everyone will interact through some ways, one of them verbal communication or speaking. There is a relationship between grammar and speaking proficiency.

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Simple past and simple present tense influence the speaking proficiency, thus by mastering those grammar aspects will make easier to understand communication each other. It thing become a basic need for some people who face the people using that foreign language, especially in the business. In Batam, as an industrial region which next to the Singapore and Malaysia, a well speaking proficiency surely needed. Here, the writer conducts the research toward impact of grammatical orientation with discourse in speaking proficiency on students’ primary school in Batam.

Keywords: Grammar Orientation, Discourse, Speaking Proficiency, Impact. 1. Introduction Learning English as a communication in this century is a must to all of people as it is the world communication language without looking at people’s background. English language as an International language has an important role to develop civilization of the International communication, because English language is a tool of communication thus the knowledge of its language such as the grammar rule should be mastered by the speaker involving the knowledge grammar.

The term of language according to Chamber (1997:266) describes that language is human speech of a particular nation or the special words used by a particular group of people. Chaer on his book Linguistik Umum (2007:33) explains about language features such as a system, symbol, sound, arbitrary, meaningful, conventional, unique, universal, productive, various, as an social interaction, dynamic, and as the identity of a speaker.

From the explanation above, as language is a system, thus the writer draws a conclusion says that all languages have a grammar which can be more or less equal in complexity including the knowledge of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatic as the grammar competence as the unity. Grammar as we know is owned by each language in the world which the purpose to enable the language learners to understand the rule, culture, and meaning in order they can speak, write, read, listen well. The grammar itself is a study of arranging or forming language sentences.

As Willis (2009) describes that grammar was about sentences and lexis was about words were the structure is employed to mean the way items – words and phrases- are sequenced to make up larger units. The people who break the rule of language grammar, thus will cause some errors on both in speaking and writing which effect the competence in English of them is bad. It means that everyone who learns a language should obey the language rules of its language. Language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols. Sapir, 1921 : 17). From the definition, that language is a means of communication purely owned by human. So language is a way to communicate ideas comprehensibly from one person to another in such a way that the other will be able to act exactly accordingly. Language is a sound that comes from human to react one another to say something in words or symbols. Based on the way language is communicated, it can be divided into three : 1) Spoken language, 2) Written language, 3). Gesture. When we use spoken language we refer to the terms speaker and hearer.

In this case the language is produce by the human organs of speech in terms of sound. In written language we refer to the writer and reader, meaning that the communication occurs by means of written symbols and these symbols are interpreted by the reader. A good writing and speaking need grammar especially in english. Grammar is the rules in a language for changing the form of words and joining them into sentences. ( Hornby 2005 : 648 ). For this meaning, anyone who does any writing other than personal letters or speaking in an audience larger than the circle of his friends and school must be able to write and speak in good rammar. It can be said formal English. Vocabulary is one of the topic in English grammar. It is the words that people use when they are talking about a particular subject. The lack of vocabularies will affect poor English. It is the foundation for all subject in English such speaking. Writing, listening, reading and others. They are related and should work together. Every vocabulary has many meanings depend on the context. So, we have a widened knowledge of vocabulary to have a good grammar.

Sekolah Dasar Kristen Kalam Kudus 2 Batam is one of Kalam Kudus Christian Foundation Schools in Indonesia. It is lied at Duta Mas Complex , Boulevard IV Batam Centre, Kepulauan Riau. It has operated since 2005 with 14 classes . They are 285 students and 28 teachers now 1. 1 Identification of The Problem The writer gives some questions to identify the problems as follow: 1. The impact of simple present errors made by students in the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus Batam to speaking activities: Item. 1).

Johanna…………her clothes every day. Respondent: wash The correct answer is washes, thus Johanna washes her clothes every day. Item. 2). She……………. not go to the beach Respondent: do The correct answer is does, thus she does not go to the beach. 2. The impact of simple past orientation errors made by students in the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus Batam to speaking activities : Item. 1). They………….. here last week. Respondent: are The correct answer is were, thus they were here last week. Item. 2). Did you…………. . here last Friday? Respondent: came The correct answer is come, thus did you come here last Friday. 1. 2 Limitation of The Problem There are several fascinating cases that can be analyzed in this topic. In doing the research, the writer only focuses on the first is the impact of grammatical orientation errors and discourse in simple present tense made by students in the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus. Second is the impact of grammatical orientation errors and discourse made by students in simple past.

Third is students ability to understand vocabularies. Fourth is the ability of students extent based on Spoken discourse in the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus 2 Batam? 1. 3Framework of The Research Theories of this research are written based on by: 1. Willis (2009:28) describes that grammar was about sentences and lexis was about words. 2. Shumin,K. (2002:207) that he made diagram of Speaking proficiency and the components of communicative competence 3. Ellis (1997:17) describes between errors and mistakes are different.

Errors reflect gaps in a learner’s knowledge; they occur because the learner does not know what is correct. Rod Ellis (1997:15) has three steps to do error analysis, they are: 1. Identifying Errors, 2. Describing Errors and 3. Explaining Errors. This is the last step of error analysis. In this step, a researcher tries to explain how and why a sentence called to be erroneous. 4. Azar (2006:53) describes that the simple present tense expresses habits and describes that simple past indicates that an activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past. . Paltridge. Brain ( 2006:7 ) describe that discourse can divided became two parts, they are spoken discourse and written discourse. 1. 4Hypothesis Some hypothesis in this researcher as follows: 1. The Grammatical Orientation Errors impacts in Speaking Proficiency on students in the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus. 2. The impact of simple present tense orientation errors has correlation in speaking proficiency on students in the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus. . The impact of simple past tense orientation errors has correlation in speaking proficiency on students in the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus. 4. The impact of Discourse in Speaking Proficiency on students in the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus 2. Review of the Related Literature In this chapter, it is necessary for the writer to describe the result of the reviewing the sources of information that are related to the topic discussed in this thesis. . 1. The Language Language according to Brown as quoted by Aziz (2001:6-7) describes that language is systematic and generative, a set of arbitrary symbols which are primarily vocal and visual and conventional meanings use for communication which operates in a speech community or culture acquired by people which have universal characteristics. From the definitions, the writer knows and understands that each language has a rule system to govern human communication in doing interactions to each other in community.

The rules itself concern about the grammar in pronunciation, syntax, pragmatic, semantic which applies then in translation, writing and speaking. 2. 2. Grammar Because language is a system it means that language has rules to manage people in learning a language. Each language in the world has grammar. The term grammar according to Thorndike/Barnhart (1979:395) is the study of the forms and uses of words in sentences in a particular language where rules describing the use if words in a language.

We understand as Willis (2009:1,48) description about grammar is about sentences involving structures, orientations and pattern, and lexis is about words including lexical phrases, collocation, and words in which group of words or class has relationship with both to grammar and lexis. The writer concludes that grammar is a study to govern the words in patterning sentence structure using various rules usage and how they should be structured. 2. 3. 1. Grammar Orientation According to Willis (2003:48), grammar orientation involves tenses, determiners, and information organization.

In the tenses, it tells when something happens or happened, while determiners like the, a(an), and any provide orientation by identifying the person or thing which are talking about: The information organization is about some grammatical devices such as the passive voice and clefting enable us to organize a text to make easy for the reader or listener. 2. 3. Tenses Tenses term as the writer gets from http://ardictionary. com/Tense/1783 is a grammatical category of verbs used to express distinctions of time. ccording to Thorndicke/ Barnhar (1979:937) describe that tenses is form of a verb that shows the time of the action or state expressed by the verb, for example I dance is in the present tense. I danced is in the past tense, I will dance is in the past tense. The http://www. englishclub. com/grammar/verb-tenses_sys-what. htm explains that tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time – past, present and future. Many languages use tenses to talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time, using different methods. 2. 4. 2. Simple Present Tense

Azar (2003:4) describes The Simple Present expresses daily habits or usual activities, general statements of fact, used for events or situations that exist always, usually, or habitually in the past, present, and future. 2. 4. 3. Simple Past Tense Azar (2003:25) describes The Simple Past is used to talk about activities or situation that began and ended in the past, most simple past verbs are formed by adding –ed, and some verbs have irregular past forms in which it is has be forms such as was and were. The example in expressing habit as in; Ann takes a shower every day, while in expressing general statements of fact as in; Babies cry.

Bird flies. The examples in expressing events or situation that exist always, usually as in; I usually read the newspaper in the morning. The Forms of Simple Past Tense, here is the forms of Simple Past Tense using to be and verbs according to Azar and Hagen (2006). The Rules in Simple Past Tense, here is the writer gives some rules about simple present tense according to Azar and Hagen (2003); 2. 4Speaking Proficiency The word speaking according to Thorndike/Barnhart (1979:871) is an act, utterance, or discourse of a person who speaks, permitting conversation.

The grammar where the speaking needs the competence of it will produce a good ability in speaking proficiency. Speaking proficiency Speaking proficiency Grammatical competence Strategic sociolinguistic Competence competence Discourse competence Diagram 2. 1. Component of Speaking Proficiency (Shumin, 2002:207) There are some skills that can be developed for the sake of reaching the speaking proficiency (Sarosdy et al, 2006:57).

They are: Organic basis of skills (articulation basis) – from sound formation to accurate respiration, rapid speech – to achieve fluent speech at the required speed, parts of speech, tenses, sequence of tenses, word order and other grammatical rules – for a speaker it is necessary to have language competence including the categories mentioned above, collocations – a competent speaker has to be aware of the collocations used on the target language, stress, intonation, rhythm – belong to the pronunciation closed to that or native speakers language learners are supposed to acquire, native like pronunciation which makes their speaking comprehensible, speech functions – students are expected to be aware of language patterns used in various communicative situations such as greetings, introduction, inviting guests, etc. Then gestures, ompensation strategies, and cohesion, coherence – if the speaker wants to deliver a speech, an oral presentation, he is expected to connect the sentences and the paragraphs to make the text cohesive. According to Sarosdy et al (2006:147), there are a lot of elements of subjectivity of assessment, which reduces the reliability of scoring. However, several techniques are available, which can improve reliability, especially if they are employed together: the most effective ones are: the use of marking scales. Several criteria for the assessment for oral production are: accuracy, appropriacy, arange of vocabulary, flexibility of communication, fluency and pronunciation. 2. 4. 1. Grammar Competence

According to (Shumin, 2002:207) grammatical competence is an umbrella concept that includes increasing expertise in grammar (morphology, syntax), vocabulary, and mechanics. Thus, grammatical competence enables speakers to use and understand English-language structure accurately and unhesitatingly which contributes to their fluency. 2. 4. 2. Discourse Competence According to an article in www. sil. org entitled What is discourse competence (textual)? Discourse competence is used to refer to two related, but distinct abilities. Textual discourse competence refers to the ability to understand and construct monologues or written texts of different genres, such as narratives, procedural texts, expository texts, persuasive (hortatory) texts, descriptions and others.

These discourse genres have different characteristics, but in each genre there are some elements that help make the text coherent and other elements which are used to make important points distinctive or prominent. 2. 4. 3. Sociolinguistics Competence Sociolinguistic competence is the ability to interpret the social meaning of the choice of linguistic varieties and to use language with the appropriate social meaning for the communication situation. 2. 4. 4. Strategic Competence Strategic competence, which is “the way learners manipulate language in order to meet communicative goals”. According to Brown(1994:288) is perhaps the most important of all the communicative competence element.

Strategic competence, that is, the ability to employ strategies to compensate for imperfect knowledge of rules according to Savignon (1983:39), be it linguistic, sociolinguistic, or discourse rules. It is analogous to the need for coping or survival strategies. With reference to speaking activities, strategic competence refers to the ability to keep a conversation going. For example, when second1 foreign language learners encounter a communication breakdown as they forget what a particular word in the target language is to refer to a particular thing, they try to explain it by mentioning the characteristics of the thing, thus employing a type of communication strategies (Cahyono, 1989). 2. The Research Methodology

In the chapter, the writer discuss about the method and procedure in the to solve the problems in this research, and the writer explains about the methodology, research design, variable research/framework operation, population and sample, technique and instrument of collecting data, technique of analyzing data, design of Hypothesis test, location and time of research. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.

It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/techniques but also the methodology. Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests, how to calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation or chi-square, how to apply particular research techniques, but they also need to know which of these methods or techniques, are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why. James Harold Fox, Criteria of Good Research, Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 39 (March, 1958), pp. 285–86. 3. 1Research Design This research applies the quantitative methodology approach where applies the quantitative method and data.

Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose. Other techniques of such research are word association tests, sentence completion tests, story completion tests and similar other projective techniques. 3. 2Variable research/framework operational The variable research is the impact of a grammar orientation errors made by house wives. All the items under consideration in any field of inquiry constitute a ‘universe’ or ‘population’.

A complete enumeration of all the items in the ‘population’ is known as a census inquiry. The preparation of the research design, appropriate for a particular research problem, involves usually the consideration of the following: 1) The means of obtaining the information; 2) The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff (if any); 3) The explanation of the way in which selected means of obtaining information will be organized and the reasoning leading to the selection; 4) The time available for research; and 5) The cost factor relating to research, i. e. , the finance available for the purpose. 3. 3Population and Sample

Population and sample according to Prasetyo and Jannah(2011:119) describes that population is symptom or unit that is going to be researched, while sample is part of population there is going to be research. In this research, the writer takes the students as populations. The writer only focuses to analyze the Fifth humble class. The populations are students at SDKKK 2 Batam. According to Balnaves and Caputi ( 2001 : 90 ), “ Sampling is social science research is a technique, a procedure, for selecting a subset of units of analysis from a population. From this definition, Sample is a number of people or thing taken from a larger group and used in tests to provide information about the group. In this research, the writer takes 30 samples. 3. Design of hypothesis The design of hypothesis in this research is drawn in this chart below: X1 YX2 X1. 1X2. 1 Y1 X1. 2X2. 2 Diagram 3. 4. Design of hypothesis X1. 1 = Simple past tenseX2. 1 = Spoken X1. 2 = Simple present tenseX2. 2 = Written Y = Speaking proficiencyY1 = Grammar Competance 1. Ho = X1. 1. T. test ? T – table H1 = X1. 1. T. test ? T – table 2. Ho = X1. 2. T. test ? T- table H1 = X1. 2. T. test ? T- table 3. Ho = X2. 1. T. test ? T- table H1 = X2. 1. T. test ? T- table 3. 5Location and Time of Research The location and time of research is the place and time where the research is conducted.

The location of this research takes place at Komplek Baloi Taman Kota Mas RT 004/009 Tanjung Uma Batam. The time of the research is taken on May 8, 12, 13, and 20 2012 where the respondents filled out the questionnaires given by the writer. 4. Finding and Discussion This chapter deals with finding and discussion of data. The field data that have been taken will be analyzed and interpreted based on the theory that deals in chapter two. 4. 1Data Analysis The questionnaires in this research become the data of 30 (thirty) samples with questionnaires which are classified into three categories; the identity of respondents, simple present and simple past tense questionnaire. The dentity of respondents includes the age, job status, education, language habit, English usage, location of language practice, weekly frequency language usage, learn English, and frequency language usage. The simple present and simple past tense question items are in the form of multiple-choice and matching with 30 (twenty nine) questions. 4. 1. 1Identity of Respondents Some questions are asked to be chosen in the questionnaire; From the language habit table shown, there are 80% which uses Indonesian 3. 3% uses English, 6. 7% uses Mandarin, 10% uses other languages. From the language usage table shown, there are 100% which ever uses English as a communication tool.

From the location practice table shown, there are 20 % practices English at around their places, 3. 3% is around their works, 70% is around their schools, and the rest is around 6. 7% practices it at everywhere. From the frequency weekly table shown, there are 13. 3% uses English about twice a week, 20% is for three times, 13. 3% is for four times, 10% is for five times, 26. 7% is for six times and 16. 7% is used by everyday. From the English study table shown, there are 36. 7 % who studies English informally, and 63. 3% never studies informally. From the Frequency usage table shown, there are 63. 3 (sixty three point three) % who never uses English, 23. (twenty three point three) % under 6 (six) months, 6. 7 (six point seven) % under a year, 3. 3 (three point three) under two years and three. 4. 1. 2The Simple Present and Simple Past Questionnaire Some questions are presented to be chosen in the questionnaire; multiple and matching. From the Ytotal table shown, that of the sample 30 there are frequency 9 (nine) poor, 12 (twelve) enough, 7 (seven) good, 2 (two) very good respondents. From the table descriptive statistics shown, there are standard deviation 1,837 (one point eight hundred and thirty-seven) simple past tense, 2. 623 (two point six hundred and twenty-seven) simple present tense. From the correlation table shown, there are 0. 33 for simple past tense and 0. 658 for simple present tense. While the standard correlation is 0. 5. It means the number of person correlation with the numbers simple past tense and simple present tense smaller. From the table Anova shown, that of the F 132. 717 while the significant value of 0. 00 (zero point zero double). Probability of the F test is much smaller than 0. 05 (zero point zero five), so it can be concluded that both independent of the above (Simple past tense and Simple present tense) together are a significant influence of the variable Y (Speaking proficiency), then the Hypothesis zero o is rejected and the Hypothesis alternative 1 accepted. 4. . 3. T. test T Coefficientsa| Model| Unstandardized Coefficients|

Standardized Coefficients| t| Sig. | | B| Std. Error| Beta| | | 1| (Constant)| 1. 095| . 721| | 1. 517| . 141| | X1. 1| 1. 186| . 214| . 430| 5. 531| . 000| | X1. 2X2. 1| 1. 1261. 950| . 143. 443| . 613. 640| 7. 8984. 406| . 000. 000| a. Dependent Variable: YTotal| Table 4. 14. Coefficients From the table coefficients shown, there are X1. 1. T. test is 5. 531 for simple past tense and 7. 898 for simple present tense, then 4. 406 for discourse even T. table is 2,042 on 30 samples (two point zero four-two), it means that Hypothesis 1 accepted and Hypothesis zero o rejected. 4. . 4. T. table Histogram Graphic 4. 1. t. table histogram From the chart above illustrated that the respondent data is still in the normal curve corresponding to graphic Histogram. 1. Ho = reject X1. 1. T. test ? T-table X1. 1. T. test = 5. 531 T. table = 2. 042 Ha = accept X1. 1. T. test ? T-table X1. 1. T. test =5. 531 T. test =2. 042 2. Ho = reject X1. 2. T. test ? T-table X1. 2. T. test = 7. 898 T. table = 2. 042 Ha = accept X1. 2. T. test ? T-table X1. 2 T. test = 7,751 T. test =2. 042 3. Ho = reject X2. 1. T. test ? T-table X2. 1. T. test = 4. 406 T. table = 2. 042 Ha = accept X2. 1. T. est ? T-table X2. 1. T. test = 7,751 T. test = 2. 042 5. Conclusion and Recommendation 6. 1. Conclusion From this research, the writer find some results for proofing the hypothesis of The Impact of Grammatical Orientation Errors with Discourse in Speaking Proficiency on the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus 2 Batam. Here is the conclusion of the research as follows: 1. In simple past tense, it is proved that Ho hypothesis zero is rejected because the value of simple past tense 5. 531 is less than T table 2. 042. Than Ha hypothesis alternative is accepted because the value of simple past tense 5. 31 is more than T. table 2. 042.

It’s concluded that there is an impact of simple past tense in speaking proficiency. 2. In simple present tense, it is proved that hypothesis zero is rejected because the value of simple past tense 7. 898 is less than T table 2. 042. Than hypothesis alternative is accepted because the value of simple past tense 7. 898 is more than T. table 2. 042. It’s mean that simple present tense has an impact in speaking proficiency. 3. In discourse, it is proved that hypothesis zero is rejected because the value of discourse 4. 406 is less than T table 2. 042. Than hypothesis alternative is accepted because the value of discourse 4. 06 is more than T. table 2. 042. It’s mean that discourse has an impact in speaking proficiency 4. There is an Impact to Grammatical Orientation with discourse in Speaking Proficiency on the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus 2 Batam. 6. 2. Recommendation Even thought English language has been a familiar for most people, but it is proof from the research the use English language still not maximal especially for the Grammatical Orientation in Speaking Proficiency with Discourse, exactly toward the respondent of the research who are the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus 2 Batam.

Even thought the the fifth humble grade of elementary school at Sekolah Kristen Kalam Kudus 2 Batam is same level, that do not mean they are able to speak English well beside on Grammatical Orientation with discourse. The writer hopes that this research will give advantage to the reader. Actually there are many other aspect that can be research regarding the use of English language such as age, status job, education, language habit, English usage, location of language practice, frequency language week, frequency language usage. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Azar, Betty Schramfer. , Hagen, Stacy A. 2006. Basic English Grammar: Third Edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson. Azar, Betty Schramfer. 1999. Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson.

Aziz, E. Aminudin. 2001. Introduction to Linguistics. Jakarta: Pusat Penerbitan Universitas Terbuka. Chaer, Abdul. 2007. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta:Rineka Cipta. Chamber’s English Student Dictionary. 1997. Edin Burgh: British National Corpus. Thorndike/Barnhart. 1979. Intermediate Dictionary. Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company. Willis, Dave. 2009. Rules, Patterns and Words: Grammar and lexis in English language Teaching. UK: Cambridge University Press. Websites: Tense3. http://ardictionary. com/Tense/1783. Online:06 May 2012; 09:50p. m. What is Tense?. http://www. englishclub. com/grammar/verb-tenses_sys-what. htm. Online:06 May 2012; 09:57p. m.