Laryngoscopes airway obstruction. It is flexible and curved

Laryngoscopes are used to perform direct laryngoscopy and
support in tracheal intubation Al-Shaikh&Stacey (2013).  A laryngoscope comes with a small cuff at the
far end for inflation into the trachea E.Martin (2015). The blades can be
curved or straight depending on the patient. The Macintosh blade is mostly used
over the curved blade, miller being the common 
straight style blade being used. Both blades are available in sizes 0 to
4 the Al-Shaikh (2013).  Laryngoscopes
are located into the right side of the mouth making sure the tongue is swept to
the left. The laryngeal inlet can be viewed by the tip of the blade being
inserted into the vallecula lifting the epiglottis J.Shorthouse (2017).


Nasopharyngeal is a device to uphold a patients airway to
relieve upper airway obstruction. It is flexible and curved with a wide end to
stop loss within the nostril J.Shorthouse (2017). The sizes vary, in order to
gain the correct size measuring the patients nostril to the angle of their jaw
needs to be done J.Shorthouse (2017).  Before inserting, lubrication is applied and
the airway is inserted through the nose into the nasopharynx to avoid the
tongue from obstructing the posterior oropharynx J.Shorthouse (2017).

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A guedel is an oropharyngeal airway piece which is used to
uphold a patients airway by avoiding the tongue covering the epiglottis
R.Ireland (2010). A guedel comes in different sizes from new-born to adults, a
size 4 which is for a large adult, a size 3 for medium adults, size 2 for small
adult and a size 1 and under for a child R.Ireland (2010). A guedel is introduced
into the mouth upside down and is then rotated 180° in adults with the
wide part resting firmly against the oral introductory. For infants, it is introduced
the right way up with the tongue held forward using a tongue depressor
R.Ireland (2010).


Laryngeal masks support by keeping a patients airway opened
during anaesthesia or unconsciousness. The average size for adult females is 3
and adult males are mainly 4 or 5  E.Martin (2015). A laryngeal mask has an
airway tube with an oval inflatable cuff at one end for insertion into the
mouth E.Martin (2015).  The laryngeal
mask sits in the hypopharynx at the crossing point amongst the gastrointestinal
and respiratory tracts which is where it produces a low compression closure
around the glottis J.Brimacombe (2008).


Endotracheal tubes are used to protect a patients airway
and can be used for both oral or nasal, they differ in sizes for adult males it’s
8.5-9mm and for adult females is 7.5-8mm. For paediatric patients the sizes
differ depending on the age and weight Al-Shaikh (2013). Endotracheal tubes are
cuffed and uncuffed, air tight seal is present when the cuff is inflated between
the tube and tracheal wall. A pilot balloon exists which specifies if the cuff
has been inflated or not Al-Shaikh (2013). The tube is put into the trachea it’s
shown whether it has been placed in the correct position or not by ensuring the
vocal cords are at the black mark in tubes with one mark or should be amongst
marks if there are two such marks Al-Shaikh (2013).


Ensuring airway equipment is available with a full range working
with spares. These include endotracheal tubes, laryngeal masks, guedel,
nasopharyngeal airways, laryngoscope, catheter mounts, intubation forceps and bougies
Hartle (2012). Equipment may be needed for the management of any unforeseen
difficult airway which should be available and checked. A record needs to be
made of who checked the anaesthetic machine by signing and dating the logbook
to confirm it has been checked Hartle (2012).