Latino skin color (Bonilla-Silva 2004). The authors also

Latino Immigration and the U.S Racial OrderThe title of the article is Latino Immigration and The U.S Racial Order: How and Where Do They fit In? It was written by Reanne Frank, Iiana Redstone, Akresh and Bo Lu. The expose was published in the Journal of American Sociological Review, volume no. 75, in June 2010.1.    Statement of the Problem:Latino immigrants in the USA have increased over the past half-century. The main issue of the 21st Century was that of the skin pigmentation and was labeled as the biggest puzzle in the US society. Latino immigrants are seen to showcase a broad variety of ethnic phenotypes that are seen to set hurdles the Black/white visual rendering of America and elevate the query historic. The authors of the article evaluate the issue of Latino immigration in the American tribal array and try to see where and how they fit in.2.    Literature Review:According to Rodriguez 2007, the Mexican-American has by now mystified the Anglo American cultural scheme and will eventually obliterate it as well. The racial system will not only be destroyed but the Black and White split will linger, with the designation of whiteness stretched to comprise the new non-black Latino migrants. The authors of the article find that the Latinos are challenging the supremacy of the racial phenotype though it still puts pressure on the outcomes of how Latinas are categorized in the racial divide that exists in the United States of America. There are others who believe that they will arise a new and more complex system of racial grouping that will have its members ranked concerning individual skin color (Bonilla-Silva 2004). The authors also found out that for Latinos, skin color is an important element of determining the race for them but they consider some other factors such as country of origin economic and social status acculturation level and marital status.Previous research was centered on the children of immigrants especially on their patterns of intermarriage and multiracial identification of children from these unions. Latino immigrants map themselves on the US color line. Although most immigrants in the U.S do not feel like the racial categories in the U.S fit them well.  3.    Variables:The specific issues being investigated by the authors included racial self-identification, whether Latinos were subjected to the consequences of a tribal stratification organization based on their phenotype with regards to their annual earnings at work.  4. Hypothesis/Hypotheses:The major hypotheses in the article include the opinion that newcomers upon confronting cultural limits for the initial time refuse to conform to the already existing set boundaries and instead they choose to endorse other-nonracial modes of categorization and societal practices with which they can be categorized in. This is aimed at positioning themselves in another intermediary racial category to distance them from the ethnic prejudice reserved for minorities in the U.S.A.5.    Research Design:(i)    Sample:The research was carried out using a method of interviewing the selected immigrants. The individuals from whom the data was collected were immigrants aged 18 years and older from the 2003 new immigrant survey who were given legal permanent residency from May to November the same year. They also used new arrival immigrants to the United States of America while also considering the individuals who had adjusted their Visa status to stay in the country. All of these individuals totaled up to a 2,729 individuals who were self-identified as Latinos in America. The researchers used a probability sampling method known as systematic sampling as the y chose specific individuals within a time frame with whom they based their research and interviews on.(ii)    Research methodThe researchers used qualitative methods of data collection which included observation and carrying out of interviews. The skilled experts were tasked with the role of identifying the respondent’s skin color using the New Immigrants Survey (NIS) skin color scale which was not outwardly validated. They also carried out interviews on the selected samples where they asked them questions on what race they consider themselves to be and they documented the answers for references and to use it in the other variable where they investigated if skin color affected the annual income acquired by Latinos in general.(iii)    Implementation and conclusion of the researchThe data was collected between the period of May and November 2003 In the U.S.A.  The trained professionals collected data for the NIS research on Latino immigrants. They used descriptive statistics which is a form of statistics that summarizes the data from a sample using indexes. This is seen when they collected data from a sample of the NIS and summarized it in tables to show the results collected by the researchers on their racial identities and how they affect them at their workplace. They also grouped the individuals according to age, gender place of origin and fluency of English spoken.   6.    Conclusions:The conclusion from research indicate that Latino’s and the issue of a racial boundary may be in flux due to the clear disjuncture existing amid the way that Latinos categorize themselves which is directly linked to the way they are viewed based on their racial phenotypes. This conclusion supports the hypothesis set that a vast majority of individual new comers upon being confronted on the issue of their race tend to refuse to conform to the already existing set boundaries and instead they choose to look into other racial classification and social practices with which they can be categorized in. This is solely aimed at positioning themselves in another intermediary racial category so that they could not be categorized among other minority groups in the U.S. Others refuse to openly state their racial identity based on the extent of the integration into their current society and their national origin group. Dark skinned Latino persons continue to experience a penalty in the area of individual earnings as compared to lighter skinned Latina’s.7.    Criticisms:The study is thoroughly planned although it could be improved in order to get consistent results. A good example would be to use a validated color scale table or a spectrophotometer which will not have a bias towards the individuals that are being interviewed. The researchers could also use a more random sampling method to acquire the information as this will yield more reliable results and diverse information from different people which enables the researchers to get more insight to the issue at hand. ReferencesFrank, R., Akresh, I. R., & Lu, B. (2010). Latino immigrants and the US racial order: How and where do they fit in?. American Sociological Review, 75(3), 378-401.