Leadershipis a key role within any working environment, the job of a leader is to achievean objective while ensuring the organisation is united. Nortouse’s (2007) definitionis that “leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group ofindividuals to achieve a common goal”.
Leaders apply their knowledge and skillsto help an individual achieve their full potential this is called processleadership (Jago, 1982). To become aleader there must be an honest understanding of who you are and what you arecapable of but to also be approachable, successful and have self-belief so thatindividuals believe in you (U.S. Army, 1983). Where as a coach has similarobjectives to a leader they want the best for the participant and will helpthem achieve the goal. It is a known fact that coaching is challenging roleespecially when trying to develop the progress of an individual, it can be along commitment to ensuring the individual gets the best possible outcome the purposeis to accomplish personal and organisational goals (Berg, 2006).
Coaching canalso be viewed as a partnership relationship base or a mutual trust between thecoach and the individual just by having a conversation this could includeasking questions and receiving feedback, coaches are motivated to reachpersonal objectives based on their own personal values (Randak-Jezierska,2015).In contrast, a facilitator isnot in charge of ensuring the lessons runs smoothly the facilitators role is toensure that they are able to provide the opportunities and are able to meet theneeds of the individuals within the group. A facilitator needs to ensure thatthey keep a clear mindset and to not let the power of the role side track them whichwill cause them to lose track of their targets.
The role does not control,direct, impress, command neither influence the actions of others. As afacilitator there are five key roles identified by Schwarz (2002). Thefacilitator according to Hunter (2007) is to guide the group of participantsand help them achieve the agreed purpose. Martin, Cashel, Wagstaff, and Breunig(2006) encourage outdoor leaders to clear up with their participants what theirroles and responsibilities are. As a facilitator they need to take thenecessary steps to ensure that they catering for the needs of the individualsthey are looking after this could consist of ensuring that the activity suitsthe groups needs and ability but also ensuring that they have the equipment neededto participate, while also ensuring that they are not taking over the situationthey are just ensuring a safe and work friendly environment. A key role within facilitation is to ensure thatpeople are kept on track and that they are progressing and not just stayingwithin their comfort zone this could be from a coaches point of view of an individualspoint of view it’s key that the facilitator can look at ways to progress with eithershort or long term goals.
However an appointed facilitator has the responsibilityfor monitoring which initiatives, if any, are needed to keep things on track,at any particular time. The first theory is transactional leadership also known as managerial leadership focuses on guidance, organisation and performance. Thisapproach allows leaders/companies to maintain obedience using a reward-penaltysystem.
The exchange of praise and reprimand can promote a fixed mindset withinthe organisation (Bligh, 2015). This style of leadership emerged through quick minimalistictransactions between numerous leaders and followers. The market place consistsof “flexibility, adaptability and time cost benefit breakdown” (Burns,1978). Disputes continue regardingrelationships amongst transactional leadership and effectiveness within a rangeof environments. Today’s foundation shows leadership within in the range of aleadership models (Bass & Riggio 2006). A select few of researchesreprimand transactional leadership such as Burns (1978), who disagreed thattransactional leadership methods allow short term of change with the leader. Leaders must drive performance within the organisation toensure that the individuals have a clear understanding and can confidently moveforward within the company and ask questions if necessary.
The values of the organisationshould remain true to themselves and focus on what they want to achieve. In comparison transformational leadership concentratesmotivating employees through inspiration and promoting accomplishing goals forself-interest. Transformational Leadership which is the mostcurrent and popular type of leadership that has been one of the main focusessince the early 1980’s. This leadership is part of the ‘New Leadership Model(Bryman, 1992). The term transformational leadership was first invented byDowntown (1973) the importantance began when working with a politicalsociologist named James MacGregor Burns titled it leadership, Burns (1978)attempted to link the roles of leadership and followership into his work. Burnswrote “Leaders as people who tap the motives of followers in order to betterreach the goals of leaders and followers” (p.18) for Burns leadership and powerare quite different because it is conjoined from the followers needs.
Anexample where transformational leadership can be used in an outdoor setting iswhen an individual is struggling to put up a tent and the leader will focus onhelping that individual improve and once that goal has been achieved the groupin initially become stronger. This type of leadership givesmore attention to the elements of outdoor leadership and the effectiveness ofit. In the years Lowe and Gardener (2001) raise a point that almost one thirdof the research has been about transformational leadership. Bass and Riggio(2006) proposed the reason why transformational leadership popularity hasincreased is down to its highlight of intrinsic motivation and followerdevelopment, This fits the needs of work groups who wish to be inspired andempowered to succeed in times where they feel uncertain. Transformationalleadership research to date focuses on investigating main effects and lessattention has been on identifying whether transformational is more or lesseffective (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, & Bomber, 1996).
Several functions, whichare a part of this transformational leadership are emotional development, moralprinciples, professionalism and long-term aspirations. This leadership strategyaccommodates the individual/ groups motives, meeting the needs of clients aswell as providing equality. Transformational leaders want to achieve collectivegoals and earn the trust of their followers to accept them, this type ofleadership will back up their followers by encouraging them to achieve theirgoals, they will also acting as a role model by promoting teamwork and inspiringindividuals to work together. (Podaskoff, MacKenzie, Moorman & Fetter,1990). Having a strong connection within the work place allows employees to askquestions about the organization plan, because they have a right to knoweverything. Faith in the leadership is necessary for motivation to recognizewith the organization and to personalize its ideals (Podsakoff, 1990). In comparisonto transactional leadership there is a reduced risk of receiving a penaltywhich relieves workplace anxiety and encourages a growth mind-set.
Theeffectiveness of transformation leadership is heavily dependent on the applicationof communication between leaders and followers (Bass 1985; 1990; 2000; 2008;Burns 1978). The interchange in ideassustains the organisations direction and potentially could improve customerservice, increase production and reduce costs (Sadeghi & Phihie, 2012). A number ofscholars criticize leadership theories because of the one-style fits allapproach to the leadership theory development that neglects evidential andcircumstantial factors associated with organisational challenges (Beyer, 1999;Yukl, 1999; 2011; Yukl & Mahsud, 2010). From the research, which hasbeen carried out a transactional approach was successful, where theorganisation enforced regulation while maintaining the employees are motivatedby rewards. It is suggested that although the work environment is generallymore stressful in an organisation adopting the transactional leadership theorybut the abundance and quality of work is greater (Bligh, 2015). Thetransformational approach promotes employee error as a result of advocating creativityand supressing discipline. Another theory is behaviourismalso known as the behavioural theory is a leap from the trait theory as thatthis theory speculates that leadership can be learned rather than it beinginherited.
This theory believes that a leader can become an competent leaderthrough observation, teaching and experience. For women working in the outdoorindsutry, the empowerment of females is fundamental for practise. According toSusan Mboya (2014), “empowerment is taking full control over one’s own life”. Whilealso ensuring that they are leading in a professional manner.
Theorists such asB.F. Skinner, John Watson and Kurt Lewin contributed to the development ofbehavioural theory. Lewin (1935) had argued that within this theory there arethree types of leaders: 2autocratic, democratic and lasses-faire”. The autocraticleaders makes the decisions without having any input from the individual theymake the choice based on what will suit the groups needs the best and what willbenefit the group. The democratic leader gives the group an option and let’sthem figure out between themselves what they would like to do, an example beingletting the group choose what route they would like to climb on the mountainwhile also ensuing the safety of the group and ensuring the group is cable ableof the route they have chosen.
The third leadership role of laissez-faire and thisis where the group makes the decisions and only asks the leader for help if itis needed or the leader steps in when it’s not safe. Lewin believe that allleaders can flick between each of these roles depending on the group and situation. Similar to the theories aboveis the trait theory which states that leaders are born (Shead 2007), the traitleadership theory is a concept that individuals are born with leadership qualitiesand assertive traits. Assertive traits are linked with efficient leadership inorder to become an effective leader, the individual needs to be able to make decisionsand take control.
Ethics are essential in providing key leadership because all leadersneed to adhere to the same values as each other. This ensures the success of achievingthe same goals and aspirations. Leaders must respect one another and otherindividuals be able to commentate effectively and efficiently reach the desiredgoal. A good leader will admit their mistakes along the way, as a leaderunderstands that everyone has to start somewhere. They understand that individualslearn from their mistakes and make developments order to improve. The traittheory infers that individuals are born as leaders or not born to be leaders.
Thereare several theories that all share the same understanding that individuals areborn to be leaders and believe that they are born with personality traits whichwill guide them to be a good leader. Stoghill (1948) highlights that one doesnot become a leader by conveying a mixture of traits but by their personal attributes,but the importance of a leader is their attitude towards to activities and aspirationsfollowers. He goes on to identify several factors which are associated withleaders: personal judgements, attainment, being a good role model andconfidence. On the other hand theorists such as B.F. Skinner would argue thatleadership is engrained in a person genetics (Skinner, 1974, p.