Lepcha and Hawaiian Cultures Essay

Lepcha Rongpas (ravine – dwellers in their own tongue) and also as Mutanchi Rongkup, or ” Mother’s loved ones”. and Hawaiian Cultures Lepcha live on the southern and eastern slopes of Mount Kanchenjunga in the Himalayas of India. Hawaiians lived on the Hawaiian Islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Lepcha native language is classified in the TibetoBurman Family. They also had their own script. There is a lot of myth and mystery surrounding their writings. The Hawaiian language is closely related to Marquesan, Tahitian, and Maori. They did not read or write. Traditional Lepcha homes are rectangular buildings, raised 1 to 1. meters off the ground on stone piles, with the space underneath serving as shelter for farm animals; houses are often constructed of wood, plaster, and bamboo. Hawaiian houses were thatched from ground to roof ridge with native grass or sugarcane leaves. SIKKIM The Lepcha diet staple is rice. They also eat wheat, maize (corn), and buckwheat. They round these out with plenty of fruits and vegetables. Occasionally fish, cattle, goats, and pigs are consumed. They drink their milk from cows and don’t drink goat milk. Millet is grown for fermenting as an alcoholic beverage; this grain is never eaten by people.

A popular traditional food is kinema. Kinema is the best and cheapest substitute for animal protein. The main ingredient is fermented soybean. HAWAII Poi, a glutinous purple paste made from pounded taro (aka kalo) root (one of the most nutritious carbohydrates known) is the staple starch food of the Hawaiians. Their main sources of protein were fish, squid, limpet, crab and other seafood, chicken, and birds. The main leafy vegetables were taro tops (luau), and edible plants such as tree fern and fan palm. They ate bananas, coconuts, raspberries, strawberries, mountain apples and sugar cane.

Seasonings came from kukui nut, seaweed, hoio fern and salt. They preserved food with salt and most foods were eaten fresh. They ate dogs and the alii (royalty) ate pig. Both cultures started out as hunter-gatherers and moved towards agriculture. Interestingly, both cultures designed irrigated complicated wetlands to produce either rice (Lepchas) or kalo (Hawaiians). The Lepcha began herding cattle steering towards pastoral behavior and seldom hunting anymore. Everyone had a garden. The Hawaiians survived on fishing, farming, hunting and gathering. Rice paddies in Sikkim. Ancient ruins of kalo gardens that doubled as fish ponds.

Kalo farm in Hawaii. Lepchas There is no rigid division of labor based on sex; women, however, are strictly forbidden to kill any animals. Groups of women and men work side by side in the fields, and although men generally weave the baskets and mats, and women spin yarn, if one of the sexes were to try one or the other activity, no stigma would be attached to it. Hawaiians Most agricultural labor was performed by men in ancient Hawaii, as was woodworking and adz manufacture. Women made bark cloth for clothing and mats for domestic furnishings, chiefly tribute, and exchange.

Men did the deepsea fishing while women gathered inshore marine foods. Sex and Marriage Lepcha Girls before 14 and boys before 16. Any sexual contact before nine generations on daddy’s side and at least 4 on mommy’s side or a union was considered incest. There are two stages in Lepcha marriage: betrothal and bringing home the bride. The betrothal phase is a validating ceremony at which the family of the groom presents the bride’s family with gifts, called “the price of the bride,” and once these are accepted the marriage is completed and the groom may have full access to his bride Hawaiians Sex and Marriage

In pre-Christian Hawai’i both sexes enjoyed near-complete freedom to initiate and terminate sexual attachments. Marriage was unmarked by ceremony and was hardly distinguished from cohabitation and liaisons, except in chiefly unions. Polygyny was the norm among the ruling chiefs, permissible but infrequent among the common people. Marrying someone of higher rank was the ideal for both men and women. Kinship The Lepchas are divided into groups based on birth and marriage; these are the patrilineal clan and the immediate nuclear and extended family. Chiefs were genealogically linked to gods and were believed to have sacred power (mana).

Under what was called the kapu system women were denied many choice foods and could not eat with men. Pre-Christian beliefs persisted at the local level long after the chiefly sacrificial religion was overthrown. The indigenous religion recognized four major gods and at least one major goddess identified with the earth and procreation. As foreign people started showing up in both places trading became part of both economies. The Lepchas today grow and export cardamom. They are outstanding carpenters, and many do find employment in this trade; they are also noted for their weaving and spinning abilities.

The Hawaiians today mostly work in the service industries and over half of the population has left the islands and migrated to California. Lepcha A popular traditional food is the kinema. Kinema is the best and cheapest substitute for animal protein. The main ingredient is fermented soybean. Abbott, Isabella Aiona; La’au Hawai’i – Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Plants; Bishop Museum Press, 1992 Hawaiian Scholar, Dr. George Kanahele, Pookela Hawaiian Culture Course. http://photoresourcehawaii. photoshelter. com/image? &_bqG=0&_bqH=eJwLq0 i2KEiLKPb2TSmID8r18vAMSA32DTJ3jzSxMrQyMjWwMjQAAivPeJdgZ9u8xJLMsl TtjMTyxMzMxDztlPLUnJzMvHQ1sHS8o5.

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