Literature Review – Field Image Processing Essay

1. Introduction

In recent old ages, progresss in information engineering and telecommunications have acted as

accelerators for important developments in the sector of wellness attention. These technological

progresss have had a peculiarly strong impact in the field of medical imagination, where movie

radiographic techniques are bit by bit being replaced by digital imagination techniques, and this

has provided an drift to the development of incorporate hospital information systems and

integrated teleradiology services webs which support the digital transmittal, storage,

retrieval, analysis, and reading of distributed multimedia patient records [ 1 ] . One of

the many added-value services that can be provided over an incorporate teleradiology services

web is entree to high-performance calculating installations in order to put to death

computationally intensive image analysis and visual image undertakings [ 2 ] .

In general, presently available merchandises in the field of image processing ( IP ) meet merely

specific demands of different terminal user groups. They either purpose to supply a comprehensive

pool of ready to utilize package within a user-friendly and application specific interface for

those users that use IP package, or purpose for the specialized IP research worker and developer,

offering programmer’s libraries and ocular linguistic communication tools. However, we presently lack the

common model that will incorporate all anterior attempts and developments in the field and at

the same clip provide added-value characteristics that support and in kernel realise what we call

a ‘service’ . In the instance of image processing, these characteristics include: computational resource

direction and intelligent executing programming ; intelligent and customisable mechanisms

for the description, direction, and retrieval of image processing package faculties ;

mechanisms for the “plug-and-play” integrating of already bing heterogenous package

faculties ; easy entree and user transparence in footings of package, hardware, and web

engineerings ; sophisticated bear downing mechanisms based on quality of service ; and, methods

for the integrating with other services available within an incorporate wellness telematics


In this paper we present the architecture of DIPE, a novel distributed environment for

image processing services. DIPE is based on a distributed, independent, co-operating agent

architecture [ 3 ] . It is designed so that it is modular, scaleable and extensile, and it can be

readily implemented on different hardware and package platforms, and over heterogenous

webs. DIPE consists of a functional nucleus which supports the persistent distributed

executing of IP algorithms, and can be extended to back up other added-value services such

as macros, resource direction, algorithm retrieval, bear downing, etc. Here we describe the

functional nucleus of the system and discourse the mechanisms and impressions employed to let

integrating of 3rd party IP algorithms and the development of new IP package. Finally, we

depict the functional extensions of the nucleus that support macro executing and resource

direction. DIPE has been developed to back up distributed medical imagination processing,

an added-value teleradiology service within the incorporate regional wellness telematics

web, presently under development by the Institute of Computer Science ( ICS ) ,

Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas ( FORTH ) , on the island of Crete [ 4 ] .

2. Architecture and Execution

The nucleus of the system consists of several pass oning constituents: user applications,

executing agents, pools of IP algorithms, and direction agents.

The direction agent is the cardinal component. Its chief intent is to gain the web

of single faculties ( applications and executing agents ) and initialize the communicating

among them. However, the chief organic structure of messages is communicated straight among the

single faculties. The local bunch can be farther expanded through a web of

direction agents, within the same or even different administrations. Therefore, the direction

agent ensures the scaleability of the environment, a basic demand of an integrated

teleradiology services web [ 1 ] . Additionally, the direction agent authenticates users

and provides alone image Idahos by utilizing standard digital signature engineering.

The executing agent is responsible for the executing of a specific algorithm. It receives

petitions for executing through the direction agent and creates a communicating nexus with


Figure 1: Communication within a DIPE bunch

the bespeaking application in order to have farther information and input informations required for

the executing ( Figure 1 ) . After this point, this agent can continue autonomously to the

executing of the algorithm. It shops input informations into a local cache country and executes the

requested algorithm. End product generated through the executing of the algorithm is sent back

to the agent. The executing agent is responsible to send on this end product to the requesting

application. In instance there is a web failure or the requesting application is non running

any longer, the agent keeps the consequences of the executing in impermanent storage for bringing

upon petition. This ensures relentless algorithm executing and enhances the hardiness of

the system.

The user application is the front terminal of the system and consists chiefly of a

customisable graphical user interface. A practical impermanent storage direction faculty

ensures that the application can manage synchronously a considerable figure of big informations

sets. An of import characteristic of the user application is that it incorporates certain image

treating algorithms that require real-time response, and therefore it is non reasonable to airt

their executing to an agent or over the web. These include modus operandis necessary for image

visual image ( e.g. , rapid climb, focal point, resize, contrast accommodation, etc. ) , every bit good as certain

algorithms for local, real-time image processing. Finally, the graphical user interface

provides toolkits that support the assorted functionalities of the environment ( algorithm

interpolation, monitoring of the system’s position, resource direction, macro composing and

executing, etc. ) . A typical screen of the application is shown in Figure 2.

The basic demand that DIPE is readily implemented on assorted runing systems

and over heterogenous webs poses certain execution restraints. Therefore, interprocess

communicating is based on the TCP/IP web protocol, while operating system

transparence is ensured by utilizing ACE, an object-oriented web programming toolkit for

developing communicating package [ 5 ] . DIPE is now implemented on UNIX and Windows

NT/95 workstations.

3. The Algorithm Repository

Figure 2: A typical screen of DIPE

The functional nucleus of DIPE is the set of available image processing algorithms, private or

public, local or web broad. An of import characteristic of DIPE is that it allows easy

integrating of 3rd party algorithms, i.e. package modules where merely an feasible is

available and the lone information known is the bid line sentence structure, every bit good as the input

and end product informations formats. The integrating is achieved through the algorithm negligee, a

individual generic procedure. The negligee converts input informations from the application format to the

format that a specific IP algorithm requires, executes the algorithm and eventually converts the

end product informations of the algorithm to the format of the user application. While the algorithm is

being executed, the negligee is responsible to manage petitions from the user application.

Such petitions include the expiration or intermission of the executing, or the recommencement of a

antecedently paused executing. Additionally, DIPE provides a library of ready-to-use modus operandis

for the development of new IP algorithms, which consists of basic modus operandis related to the

get downing and stoping stages of the algorithm, every bit good as of modus operandis that support a more

sophisticated manner of user-algorithm communicating during executing.

In everyday medical image processing, a common state of affairs involves treating images

utilizing the same set of algorithms frequently with a standard set of parametric quantity values. DIPE

provides the mechanisms to simplify the complicated procedure of put to deathing single

algorithms consecutive, by grouping them together and therefore making a macro-algorithm

( macro ) . In general, the DIPE macro is a set of single algorithms that may be performed

independently on the same or different informations sets, or may be performed consecutive. There is

no restraint on the complexness of algorithm combinations and the inter-relationships of

their input and end product informations. The executing of a macro is the duty of a particular macro

agent. The macro agent acts as a go-between for macro executings. It consists of three chief

functional parts: the interface with the application, the interface with the remainder of the system

( direction and executing agents ) , and the faculty which is responsible for the

direction of the macro executing. The macro agent theoretical accounts macros as a directed acyclic

graph, therefore enabling macro decomposition and single programming of its constituents.

4. Resource Management

Quality of service in DIPE is guaranteed by a sophisticated resource direction and

executing scheduling mechanism. The programming of a requested algorithm executing to the

most appropriate processing component ( PE ) is a distributed determination doing procedure based on

the market metaphor, and is realised through the co-operation of the executing agents [ 6, 3 ] .

Upon petition for an algorithm executing, the direction agent initialises an ‘auction’ . The

petition is forwarded to the appropriate ‘bidders’ , that is those executing agents that are able

to execute the petition. Each executing agent evaluates the petition by taking into

consideration the burden of the local PE, the possible being of the needed input informations in its

local cache vs. the cost for reassigning the informations through the web, and the executing

features of the peculiar algorithm. Then, each executing agent makes a command to the

direction agent by returning the estimated ‘cost’ of the executing. The direction

agent evaluates all the commands it receives and assigns the executing to a peculiar executing


It is of import to observe that the executing features of each algorithm are drawn

from its executing profile, which includes information on size of input/output informations, PE

memory needed at runtime ( comparative to input informations ) and clip needed for executing

( normalised to input informations and PE ) . A good estimate about the memory demands

and the executing clip of an algorithm is derived from a statistical analysis based on

old executing profiles of the algorithm.

5. Discussion

DIPE has been designed and developed to offer image processing services over incorporate

wellness attention services webs, and to move as an integrating platform for diverse image

processing package. It exhibits a modular, extensile and scaleable architecture that ensures

system hardiness and executing continuity. A sophisticated resource direction and

executing scheduling mechanism allows the medical expert to take full advantage of

geographically distributed computational resources. Future research will turn to the

development of intelligent and customisable mechanisms for the description, direction,

and retrieval of image processing package faculties, every bit good as bear downing mechanisms based

on quality of service.

DIPE is presently being extended through its functional integrating with other medical

information systems that have been developed in our research lab. Important illustrations

include CoMed [ 7 ] , a desktop conferencing application which allows synergistic real-time

co-operation among several medical experts, every bit good as TelePACS [ 4 ] , an information

system for medical image direction and communicating. DIPE is one of the diverse

telematics applications incorporated in the regional wellness telematics web, which is

presently being developed by ICS-FORTH on the island of Crete.