Topic One Maintaining a Balance 1. What are enzymes? Identify their role in metabolism. 2. Enzymes are made up of ____________, _____________, ______________ and ________________. 3. Enzymes are large __________ that are coiled up to form an ____________ __________. 4. The molecule that the enzyme acts on is called the ______________. 5. Use a model to illustrate how enzymes work. 6. Explain how enzymes are specific. 7. Using the pH scale, identify how the pH can be used to describe the acidity of a substance. . Define intracellular. 9. Give an example of a chemical equation involving an enzyme: 10. With reference to a first hand investigation you have performed, describe the effect of: a) Temperature on the activity of an enzyme: b) pH on the activity of enzymes: c) Change in substrate concentrations on the activity of the enzyme: 11. Why is the maintenance of a constant internal environment important for metabolic efficiency? 12. Describe homeostasis. 13. The two stages of homeostasis are: ) __________________________________________ 2) __________________________________________ 14. Explain the first stage of homeostasis: 15. Complete: |STIMULUS |RECEPTOR AND EXAMPLE | |Light | | | |Thermoreceptor, e. g. skin. |Sound, touch, pressure, gravity | | |Electrical fields, magnetic fields | | | |Chemoreceptor, e. g. oxygen | 16. Explain the second stage of homeostasis. 17. Draw a model of homeostasis: 18. Outline the role of the nervous system in detecting and responding to environmental changes. 9. Identify the broad range of temperatures over which life is found compared with the narrow limits for individual species such as sugar cane; seeds, lichens and mosses; and Bogong moths. 20. Complete: |ORGANISM |CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE |RESPONSE |HOW RESPONSE ASSISTS TEMPERATURE | | | | |REGULATION | |Superb parrot (endotherm) | | | |Kangaroo (endotherm) | | | | |Eucalyptus (ectotherm) | | | | |Central netted dragon | | | | |(ectotherm) | | | | 1. Complete: |PLANT |TEMPERATURE CHANGE |RESPONSE | |Tuberous Roots | | | |Banksia | | | |Eucalyptus | | | 2. The __________ transports many substances around the body – substances required for _____________, products of _____________ and _____________ from cellular activities. 23. SUBSTANCE |TRANSPORTED AS | |Carbon dioxide | | | |Oxyhaemoglobin | |Water | | |Salts | | | |Chylomicrons | | |Urea | |Products of digestion | | 24.
Explain the adaptive advantage of haemoglobin. How many oxygen molecules can a red blood cell carry? What role does haemoglobin play? 25. |VESSEL (DIAGRAM) |STRUCTURE |FUNCTION | |Artery | | | |Vein | | | |Capillary | | | 26.
In a first hand investigation you carried out, what was the effect of carbon dioxide on the pH of water? 27. a) What is the relative size of a red blood cell to a white blood cell? b) What is the relative proportion of red cells to white cells in the human blood? c) What is the main function of red blood cells? Is a nucleus visible? How might this affect their functioning and life span? d) Explain why the number of white cells in the body vary according to the health of the individual. 28. |BLOOD ENTERING |ORGAN /TISSUE |BLOOD LEAVING | |Low oxygen | | |High CO2 | | | | |Heart | | | |Intestines | | | | |High in urea | | | |Low in ammonia | |High in urea | | | | | |High in CO2 | | | |High in Ammonia | 29. a) Identify and describe four different technologies that allow measurement of oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide concentrations in blood. b) List the conditions under which these technologies may be used: 30. Identify four products extracted from donated blood and discuss the uses of these products: 31. ) Construct a timeline for the progress in production of synthetic / artificial blood in the last century. b) List the reasons for using synthetic blood: 32. Complete the advantages and disadvantages for synthetic blood: ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES 33. Cells require _______________ for respiration, in order to provide _____________ for the cell. _____________ _______________ is also produced by respiration as a waste product, and must be removed by the cell. When CO2 dissolves in the body, it causes the cells’ pH to become _________. Therefore, ___________ cannot reach metabolic _______________ and the cell may cease to function. 34. Complete: processes in plants for movement if materials. |XYLEM |PHLOEM | |Description | | | |Function | | | |Transport | | | 35. Draw diagrams of the xylem and phloem transport mechanisms: XYLEM PHLOEM 36. Cells must be kept in an ______________ environment for optimal _________________ of the cell. That is, water concentration should be the _______ both inside and outside the ________. 37. Outline the use of water in the functioning of a cell. Why should the concentration of water therefore be maintained? 38.
Draw diagrams to show how both plant and animal cells react to different concentrations of water: HYPERTONICISOTONICHYPOTONIC SOLUTIONSOLUTIONSOLUTION 39. Explain why the removal of wastes in cells, is essential for continued metabolic activity. What are these metabolic wastes? 40. Identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system in fish and mammals. a) FISH: b) MAMMALS 41. Why are the processes of diffusion and osmosis inadequate in removing dissolved nitrogenous wastes in some organisms? 42. Describe active transport and reabsorption as alternative methods of removing nitrogenous wastes: 43. Distinguish between active and passive transport, in particular within the mammalian kidney: |ACTIVE TRANSPORT |PASSIVE TRANSPORT | |Definition | | | |When does it occur? | | | |Where does it occur? | | | |Why does it occur? | | | 44. Draw and label the kidney, as you saw through its dissection. Describe each part’s appearance. 45.
The _____________ are the regulatory unit of the kidney. __________________ occurs passively and is non-selective with regard to molecules small enough to pass through the capillary wall of the ________________ and into the ______________ ______________ of the nephron ______________. Substances such as glucose, ____________, amino acids and _______________ ________ are actively absorbed back into the blood. Waste materials must be excreted from the kidney as they can interfere with cell _______________, can build up, disrupt _____________ and affect ___________ activity. However, the end products of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, ____________ and _____________ are relatively easy to excrete.
Nitrogenous wastes are converted to the highly toxic ______________, which must be then excreted as urea and expelled out of the __________. 46. Energy processes in the kidney: |PROCESSES |ACTIVE / PASSIVE | |Filtration | | |Osmosis of water back into the blood | | |Reabsorption back into the blood | | 47. Compare the process of renal dialysis with the function of a kidney. PROCESS |KIDNEY |RENAL DIALYSIS | |Function | | | |Differences | | | |Similarities | | | 48. | |TERRESTRIAL MAMMAL e. g. HUMAN |MARINE FISH e. g. SNAPPER |FRESHWATER FISH, e. g.
GOLDFISH | |Name of nitrogenous waste |Urea |Ammonia |Ammonia | |Form of waste | | | | |Factors affecting concentration | | | | |of urine | | | | |How is water balance maintained? | | | | 49. Outline the role of the hormones, aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation if water and salt levels in the blood. ALDOSTERONEADH 50. Outline the general use of hormone replacement therapy in people who cannot secrete aldosterone. 51.
Explain the relationship between the conservation of water and the excretion of concentrated nitrogenous wastes in Australian insects and mammals. a) Insects (e. g. _______________, ______________) b) Mammals (e. g. ______________________________) 52. Define enantiostasis. Why is it important for estuarine organisms to maintain appropriate salt concentrations? 53. Referring to a first hand investigation you performed, and using results, gather information about the structures (ie. stomates) in plants that assist in the conservation of water. 54. Draw some adaptations of a range of Australian terrestrial plants that assist in the conservation of water: FEATURE AND DIAGRAM |HOW IT REDUCES WATER LOSS |EXAMPLE OF PLANT WITH THIS FEATURE| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 55. Discuss the processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments: