Management all employees which is the main

Management is a set of principles relating to the functions of planning,
organizing, leading and controlling, and the application of these principles in
joining financial,physical, human and informational resources efficiently and
effectively to achieve organizational goals. Management is a process that needs
frequent “essential” changes in order to grow and keep pace with development
and for the organization to grow. Thus, it is essential as managers to
encourage creativity and innovation among all employees which is the main part
of manager’s job. Moreover, change is an organizational reality, since
organizations face changes because of internal and external factors create the
need of change.

organizational success depends on how we prepare, train, and support
individuals to successfully adopt change sand innovation, this discipline is
called Change management. Change management provides a structured
approach for supporting the individuals in an organization to move from their
own current states to their own future states, hence, these transitions within
individuals are influenced by many actions. Moreover there are three levels of
change management; individual change management, organizational initiative
change management, and enterprise change management capability. Besides, change
management has at least three different aspects, including: adapting to change,
controlling change, and effecting change, also it refers to a systematic
approach to keeping track of the details of the system.

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            All organizations demand change in a
way or another, for organizational development, growth, and continuity. Hence,
most managers have to change things in their work place, these are called
organizational changes, which is any alternation of people, technology, and
structure, so change takes place in these three aspects. Not forget to talk
about two views that describe the change process, one image shows the
organization as a large ship crossing a calm sea, where the captain knows well
where they’re going because they have made the trip many times before. While
the second view, is that you may imagine you self that you are navigating a
small raft in a powerful raging river, this is the image that is usually given
to companies operating in an environments that witness lots of change.
Furthermore, a change includes and affect many areas within the organization,
here are some aspects that may be affected by any change within the organization:

which consider resource availability, access to the job site, cash flow
predictions, and deadlines in the project schedule.

changes  in budget can accumulate into
significant cost overruns, labor is typically the largest expense on a project,
so overages on completing project tasks can quick drive changes to the costs.

any change can affect the expected quality of work, changes to the project
schedule can affect quality as the work force may rush through assignments to
meet the work schedule, but generate defects in the rushed work.

resources; changes to the work  may require
additional labor, so the manager may lose key resources that have other
assignments that now conflict with the delayed work schedule. Changes to the work
team, such as team members leaving the organization, can also affect the entire


changes must be communicated to the appropriate stakeholders at the appropriate
time, when a change happens the manager must examine who needs to be informed
of the change and communicate the change in the best modality considering the
change implications.

changes can threaten the success of the work, all proposed changes must be
examined for any possible risks the change may introduce to the work’s ability
to reach its objectives.

changes can positively or negatively affect the stakeholders’ cooperation,
enthusiasm, and support of the work, so the manager must examine the potential
affect the change may have on the project stakeholders.

When a change is managed, the manager must document the entire
process. This begins with a change request, all these change requests must be
in writing to confirm that the manager and the person requesting the change are
both in agreement about what is included in the new situation after the
requested change takes place

Management Models:

Change management models describe and simplify a process so that we
can understand and apply the principles.No matter how well you plan for change
you should always expect a surprise, since change rarely follows the exact
steps change management models suggest, so it is important to work to a plan
using models that are based on experiences and observation, don’t forget to allow
yourself some flexibility when following a model rather than following it too rigidly.
Thus, the way you go about implementing change will differ depending on the
modelused, but there are basic steps that are important to follow that are
common to personal or organizational change.(Mark

According to Kurt Lewin, there are factors that influence people to
change, and there are three stages needed to make change successful.Lewin’s
three stage theory of change is commonly referred to as Unfreeze, Change,
Freeze (or Refreeze), but be aware that the theory has been criticized for
being too simplistic. So, three stages; Unfreezing, Change, Freezing.

1: Unfreezing

The Unfreezing stage is most likely one of the more essential stages
to understand in the world of change we live in today. It includes getting to a
point of understanding that change is necessary, and getting ready to move away
from our current comfort zone. One of these stage is about preparing ourselves,
or others, before the change, the more we feel that change is necessary, the
more motivated we are to make the change, besides when the deadline comes some
species of reward or punishment linked to the job, then much motivations will
be to make a change.(Kurt Lewin)

2: Change/Transition

Lewinsaid that “that change is not an event, but rather a process”, so he called
that process a transition which is the inner movement we make in reaction to a
change, and that occurs as we make the changes that are needed. Moreover, this
is not an easy time as people are learning about the changes and need to be
given time to understand and work with them, then transition is a process that
occurs within each of us, so support is important  and can be in the form of training and coaching.
It’s really useful to keep communicating a clear picture of the desired change
and the benefits, so people don’t lose sight of where they are heading. (Kurt

3: Freezing/Refreezing

the name suggests this stage is about establishing stability once the changes
have been made. The changes are accepted and become the new standard. People
form new relationships and become comfortable with their routines. (Kurt Lewin)

Popular thought has moved away from the concept of freezing.
Instead, we’re trying to think about this final stage as being more flexible. Given
today’s pace of change this is a reasonable criticism. But it might help to get
in touch with what Kurt Lewin was actually saying. In 1947 he wrote:

“A change
towards a higher level of group performance is frequently short-lived, after a
“shot in the arm”, group life soon returns to the previous level.
This indicates that it does not suffice to define the objective of planned
change in group performance as the reaching of a different level. Permanency of
the new level, or permanency for a desired period, should be included in the

addition, In 1995 John Kotter published an article in the Harvard Business
Review (HBR), the article was “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts
Fail” in which Kotter discusses eight mistakes organizations make that
result in unsuccessful change.While the article points to reasons change can
fail Kotter also refers to eight phases that are necessary for effective

are Kotter’s 8-Step Model for effective change:

a Sense of Urgency

the Guiding Coalition

Vision and Strategy

 Communicating the change vision

Broad Based Action

Short Term Wins

Gains and producing More Change

New Approaches in the Culture

John Kotter still refers to 8-step process for Leading Change:

1.  Create a Sense of Urgency.

recognize the importance of creating a sense of urgency in order to avoid
complacency regarding change.

2.  Build a Guiding Coalition.

Guiding Coalition is central to the network and consists of volunteers
representing all levels, departments and skills in the hierarchy. All members
are equal.

3.  Form a Strategic Vision and Initiatives.

vision statement is created and is focused on capitalizing on the identified
big opportunity. It appeals to people’s emotions and sets out strategic
initiatives to achieve that vision.

4.   Enlist a Volunteer Army.

the Guiding Coalition’s responsibility to communicate the vision and the
strategy in such a way that employees buy into the message, commit to it, and
feel motivated to volunteer to be a part of the change.

Enable Action by Removing Barriers.

that gets in the way of achieving the vision is identified and solved. Kotter
sees suitably qualified and skilled members of the network.

Generate Short Term Wins.

Guiding Coalition must celebrate and communicate visible and significant short
term wins in order to generate motivation and confirm that decisions and
actions are benefiting the organization.

Sustain Acceleration.

believes the sense of urgency around the big opportunity must be maintained
with new projects, themes and volunteers in order to invigorate people and the

Institute Change.

needs to be assimilated into the organization. It needs to be normalized in the
culture of the organization and the link made between the change and
organizational success.

Besides, when you hear the name Elisabeth Kubler-Ross it’s usually
because of her influential work on death and dying.In 1969 she described five
stages of grief in her book “On Death and Dying”. These stages
represent the normal range of feelings people experience when dealing with
change in their own lives or in the workplace.

five stages of Kubler-Ross wrote about are:


or Denial

can’t believe it”, “This can’t be happening”, “Not to
me!”, “Not again!”

is usually a temporary defense that gives us time to absorb news of change
before moving on to other stages. It is the initial stage of numbness and
shock. so, if we can pretend that the change is not happening, if we keep it at
a distance, then maybe it will all go away. (Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)


me? It’s not fair!” “NO! I can’t accept this!”

we realize that the change is real and will affect us our denial usually turns
to anger. Now we get angry and look to blame someone or something else for
making this happen to us.You might find you are more irritable towards
colleagues or family. You’ll notice others finding fault with the smallest
things.(Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)


let me live to see my children graduate.”; “I’ll do anything if you
give me more time A few more years?”

is a natural reaction of those who are dying. It’s an attempt to postpone what
is inevitable. We often see the same sort of behavior happening when people are
facing change. Thus, we start bargaining in order to put off the change or find
a way out of the situation.In a work situation someone might work harder and
put in lots of overtime to prove themselves invaluable in order to avoid
retrenchment.(Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)



so sad, why bother with anything?”; “What’s the point of

we realize that bargaining is not going to work the reality of the change sets
in. At this point we become aware of the losses associated with the change and
what we have to leave behind. Then, the depression stage is often noticeable in
other ways in the workplace, while people dealing with change at work may reach
a point of feeling demotivated and uncertain about their future.(Elisabeth


going to be OK.”; “I can’t fight it, I may as well prepare for

people realize that fighting the change is not going to make it go away they
move into a stage of acceptance.It is not a happy space, but rather a resigned
attitude towards the change, and a sense that they must get on with it.
Acceptance can be a creative space as it forces people to explore and look for new
possibilities. (Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)

When Elisabeth Kubler-Rossuse this model most people are relieved
to identify the stage they are currently in as well as recognizing what they
have previously felt.People identify with the stages from past experiences of
change that might have been of a personal nature.The Kubler-Ross model is very
useful to identify and understand how other people are dealing with change.

Management Process

The change management process is the structure of steps or
activities that a change management team or project leader follow to apply
change management to a change in order to ensure the project meets its intended
outcomes and drive individual transitions. There are nine elements have been
identified from research as key elements of a successful change management
process.These elements are incorporated into Prosci’s 3-Phase Process;

1: Preparing of Change (define your change management strategies,
prepare your change management team, develop your sponsorship model)

2: Managing Change (develop change management plan, take action and
implement plan)

3: Reinforcing Change (collect and analyze feedback, diagnose gaps
and manage resistance, implement corrective actions and celebrate success)

are the nine elements of a successful change management process:


are tools used by a change management team or project leader to assess the
organization’s readiness to change. Readiness assessments can include
organizational assessments, culture and history assessments, employee
assessments, sponsor assessments and change assessments. You will also need to
assess the strengths of your change management team and change sponsors, then
take the first steps to enable them to effectively lead the change process.



managers accept that if they communicate clearly with their employees, their
job is done. Moreover communication planning, therefore, begins with a careful
analysis of the audiences, key messages and the timing for those messages. The
change management team or project leaders must design a communication plan that
addresses the needs of frontline employees, supervisors and executives. (Prosci)


change management team must develop a plan for sponsor activities and help key
business leaders carry out these plans.Business leaders and executives play a
critical sponsor role in times of change, then research shows that sponsorship
is the most important success factor.(Prosci)


has more influence over an employee’s motivation to change than any other
person, so they play a key role in managing change. Also, managers can be the
most difficult group to convince of the need for change and can be a source of
resistance. Individual change management activities should be used to help
these managers through the change process.(Prosci)


impacted people receive the training they need at the right time is a primary
role of change management. This means training should only be delivered after
steps have been taken to ensure impacted employees have the awareness of the
need for change and desire to support the change. Change management and project
team members will develop training requirements based on the knowledge, skills,
and behaviors essential to implement the change. (Prosci)


from employees and managers is normal and can be proactively addressed.
Persistent resistance, however, can threaten a project. The change management
team needs to identify, understand and help leaders manage resistance
throughout the organization. Resistance management is the processes and tools
used by managers and executives with the support of the change team to manage
employee resistance.(Prosci)


 Feedback from employees as a change is being
implemented is a key element of the change management process. Change managers
can analyze feedback and implement corrective action based on this feedback to
ensure full adoption of the changes.(Prosci)


and group recognition is a necessary component of change management in order to
cement and reinforce the change in the organization. Continued adoption needs
to be monitored to ensure employees do not slip back into their old ways of


final step in the change management process is the after-action review.This is
part of the ongoing, continuous improvement of change management for your
organization and ultimately leads to change competency. It is at this point
that you can stand back from the entire program, evaluate successes and
failures, and identify process changes for the next project.

While it is the natural psychological and physiological reaction of
humans to resist change, we are actually quite resilient creatures. When
supported through times of change, we can be wonderfully adaptive and
successful. Thus, change management requires understanding how people
experience change and what they need to change successfully. People involved in
change will need to recognize that change is risky; change can be scary; change
can often entail the real desire and need to slip back into the comfort zone,
so the main manager’s duty in dealing with people involved in the change
process is to require patience, gentle humor, respect, understanding, and
support.However, driving successful individual transitions should be the
central focus of the activities in organizational change management.Since change
management capability is that individuals embrace change more quickly and
effectively, then the organizations are able to respond quickly to market
changes, embrace strategic initiatives, and adopt new technology more quickly
and with less productivity impact. This capability does not happen by chance, but
requires a strategic approach to drive in change management across an
organization. Finally, among the change process, are managers tracking their employee
perceptions throughout the change? Or change requirements are just dictated
within employees?