Many within the company. In societies with

Japanese women are discriminated against by companies. Most major Japanese
firms have an in-house training system based on the guarantee of employment for
life. They are hiring young graduates to take the time to train. During this
training period, new recruits change positions every three to four years within
the company. In societies with nationwide activities, these changes are often
accompanied by a change of residence. This system penalizes women to the extent
that most of them cannot move away from their families and are forced to leave
their jobs. Japanese women are therefore discriminated against at the time of
hiring and when they are hired, they do not enjoy the same benefits as men in
terms of jobs, training and promotion.

The human resource
management system in about half of large companies is emblematic of the
discrimination faced by women. It consists in dividing the new employees into
two different categories according to whether they are assigned to main tasks (“sôgôshoku”) or subordinate
tasks (“ippanshoku”). The first type of job goes hand in hand with transfers and the
possibility of later going on to management positions while the second does not
involve any changes or promotions.

In 2012, 72% of
companies recruiting staff for “sogosoku-type” positions with key transfers reported that more than 80% of their
employees in this category were men. In the same survey, 52% of firms with an “Ippanshoku” industry reported
that more than 80% of these recruits were women1. Which
is to say that the choice is based on sex of the candidate. Japan is the only
developed country where companies openly resort to such subterfuge.

1 Ministry
of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Basic Survey of Gender Equality in
Employment Management, 2012