Describe how the media shape public opinion. What are the consequences of the media’s influences in the public opinion? The media has shaped public opinion. “For many years, students of the subject tended to doubt that the media had more than a marginal effect on public opinion. The “minimal effects hypothesis” stemmed from the fact that early scholars were looking for direct impacts – for example, whether the media affected how people voted. Consequences-the media influences the criteria by which the public evaluates political leader. . What is the policy agenda? Who are the policy entrepreneurs and how do they utilize the media to get their issues on the policy agenda? Policy agenda is the issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time. Policy entrepreneurs are people who invest their political “capital in an issue. They use press releases, press conferences, letter writings, reporters and columnist to tell their stories to tell their political agenda.
6.Explain how the news media affects the scope of government and American individualism. How have they helped and hindered the growth of the democracy in the United States. Media’s affect on the scope of government- the media has held the government responsible for handling almost every major problem (Poverty, medical care, education). The media encourages the government to take on many tasks. American Individualism- media has reinforced and furthered individualism in the American Political process.
Americans can see the candidates “up-close and personal” there is less need for political parties and social groups to help make their decisions. Media has helped and hindered the growth to democracy due to widespread access to information. V Mass media and the political agenda Factions-term used by Madison to denote what we now call interest groups Fairness doctrine-Federal Communications Commission policy that required holders of radio and television licenses to ensure that different viewpoints were presented about controversial issues or persons; largely repealed in 987 Feeding frenzy-Just as sharks engage in a feeding frenzy when they sense blood in the water, the media “attack” when they sense wrongdoing or scandal in government, and devote great amounts of coverage to such stories. High-tech politics-A politics in which the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are increasingly shaped by technology. Horse race coverage – the tendency of the media to report on an election campaign as if it were a horse race, i. . , who is ahead, who is behind, who is gaining ground. Investigative journalism-the use of in depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams and schemes which at times puts the reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders Mass media-forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people Narrowcasting – Media programming on cable TV or the Internet that is focused on one topic and aimed at a particular audience.
Examples include MTV, ESPN, and C-SPAN. Selective exposure-The process by which individuals screen out messages and media that do not conform to their own biases Selective perception -The phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions. Sound bite – a short, pithy comment that is likely to attract media attention, e. . , Ronald Reagan saying, “A recession is when your neighbor loses his job, a depression is when you lose your job, and recovery is when Jimmy Carter loses his job. ” Spin control-placing a certain slant on a story to deflect negative public attention against a candidate or office holder Trial balloons – an intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reaction