Mass Transit System and Its Impact on Private Vehicle Numbers on the Road Essay

Problem of Study How has the introduction of a Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) like Delhi Metro, affected the car buying behaviour of resident commuters? Report Summaries Evaluation of Public Transport Systems: Case Study of Delhi Metro: Tiwari G. , _Associate Professor for Transport Planning, Advani M. Research Scholar, Transportation Research and Injury prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi_ The case study analyses the methodology and arguments used to justify the investments made in Mass Rapid Transit Systems (MRTS) which have been promoted to arrest the increasing trend of traffic congestion, air pollution and traffic accidents due to the growing number of vehicular trips by cars and two wheelers. The case study presents evaluation of Delhi metro in terms of capacity, travel time and accessibility to the system and evaluation indices reflecting commuter’s perspective.

The case study is structured as follows:Urban transport Delhi metro Chennai metro Kolkata metro Evaluation criteria {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} Initial & maintenance cost Who will use the metro {text:list-item} {text:list-item} Conclusion The authors begin by examining the deteriorating transport situation in most Indian metropolitan cities because of increasing travel demand and inadequate transportation system. Then the authors pick and analyse the MRTS in three metropolises of India individually, comparing the length, carrying capacity, development cost and the extent to which they meet the traffic demand.The case study then goes on to evaluate the respective MRTSs over selected evaluation criteria like influence zone, feeder service & integrated ticketing, luggage and parking, in the light of the fact that both Kolkata and Chennai metros have not performed as per expectations. The case study also studies the construction, development and maintenance costs of the metro by evaluating DMRC statements, which were published in different newspapers articles.DMRC officials used these statements for justifying and highlighting the benefits of metro system, highlighting the importance of analysing these statements. The analysis questions the basis of benefit assessment methodology for metro. The authors also closely look at other important issues which should be considered while evaluating and comparing services provided by metros and buses like flexibility, convenience to reach stop/station and speed (which is a direct measure of travel-time).

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After analysing the consumer segment that the MRTSs will target, the authors conclude that although metro systems have been planned to reduce congestion on the roads, however, systems planned in India show cost overrunning and under utilisation of capacity, stating that high capacity system do not necessarily generate high demand. Estimation of passenger demand for transit services should also consider complete journey of commuters including access time. Transport & Land-use Policies in Delhi: Tiwari G. _Associate Professor for Transport Planning, Transportation Research and Injury prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi_ The report is structured as follows: Introduction Historical patterns and trends Land use and spatial distribution Traffic patterns Mobility patterns Transport land-use relation Health impacts {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} Conclusion 10. Discussion The report primarily focuses on the adverse impact on urban quality of life by the current transportation policies in mega-cities, focusing chiefly on Delhi.

The report captures patterns in formulation of transportation policies starting from the time of foundation of the Delhi Municipal Committee in 1874 when planned development of the city was first attempted. The master plan for Delhi, which is supposed to be the blueprint for developing the entire city, has been violated systematically by many governmental and semi-governmental agencies and the systemic failure of planning is evident from the situation today. For example, (i) the ‘‘green belt’’ that was specified in DMP 62 has been exploited by land developers.

ii) The resettlement colonies and industrial areas, which were supposed to be a ring town under DMP 62, are now a connected suburb. (iii) Gurgaon, Faridabad, and Ghaziabad are contiguous urban sprawls, and the arterial roads and national highways are the most congested in the region. (iv) Constantly increasing numbers of poor people continue to live in informal settlements without services. (v) Estimates suggest that over 1500 unauthorized colonies are without civic amenities and that as much as 60% of the population lives in substandard housing.The living conditions of the residents in these colonies are very poor, with 70% without sewage facilities and 60% with no separate space for cooking in their houses.

(vi) The acute scarcity of land, shelter, and infrastructure means that many people put up shanties or substandard housing, known as jhuggi jhopri clusters or ‘‘jhuggies’’, on public land (and other vacant land). Well over 3 million people are estimated to live in jhuggies; this number is projected to increase to 4. million by 2011 and to 6 million by 2020. And all of the above contribute to the transport woes of the Delhi-NCR region (apart from the vehicles) by means of land encroachment, which could otherwise be used as public transport infrastructure and adding to the number of non-resident commuters on the roads, saturating the existing public transport like buses and metros. The report also says that unlike most Indian cities, the traffic in Delhi is predominantly motorized vehicles.The proportion of fast moving vehicles — especially light, fast vehicles — has increased dramatically over the years.

On a typical weekday, the Central Road Research Institute showed that cycle traffic contributes 13–34% of the total traffic on roads. A study by the Indian Institute of Technology of classified volume counts at 13 different locations in Delhi in 1993–94 showed that the share of non-motorized modes of transport ranged between 8% and 66%, of motorized two-wheelers between 22% and 55%, and of cars between 15% and 44%.Additionally, nearly 32% of all commuter trips in Delhi are walking trips and road-based public transport, including chartered buses, accounts for 42% of all trips. Of the total commuter trips, around 11% are by slow modes of transport, such as cycles and rickshaws, 5% by cars, and 12% by motorized two-wheelers. The author also establishes a link between transport and land-use with the help of an illustration. {draw:frame} The figure presents a simplified model of the relation between transport and activity system.

Transport system includes modes of transport, different technologies of transport, the infrastructure, institutional set-up, and policies concerned with transport system. The activity system consists of the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the region. It also includes land-use policies and characteristics. In other words, activity system determines the demand for travel, and transport system determines the supply to fulfil the current demand.The figure essentially shows a feedback loop from a flow sub-system to a transport system as well as an activity system. The types of flows should determine the characteristics of transport systems and the modes and infrastructures required in the future, as well as the land-use patterns and the spatial and temporal spread of activities. After this, future improvements in transport systems should be such that they can fulfil the varied demands of various flows.

For example, if cars face congested conditions and pedestrians inconvenient and unsafe road designs, future improvements to road designs should address both of these concerns. From the perspective of transport-related issues, the report concludes that transport policies continue to encourage use of private vehicles as Delhi has ‘‘captive users’’ for buses and non-motorized vehicles, who, despite the hostile environment, continue to walk, bicycle, or use overcrowded buses, because their survival in the city depends on them making such trips.To maintain the shares of affordable and environment-friendly modes of transport in the city, introduction of commuter-friendly systems must take priority over the introduction of clean technologies and infrastructures for pedestrians should be created to ensure safe approaches to bus stops, and road usage for public transport vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists should be prioritized. Urban Transportation in Indian Cities: Whitepaper, Tiwari G. Transportation Research and Injury prevention Programme, Chair Associate Professor for Transport Planning, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi This whitepaper throws light on the urban transportation in Indian cities by comparing and contrasting public and private modes of transport. The author says that despite high growth rates of motorised two wheelers and cars in the last two decades (15% and 10% per annum respectively), car ownership remains at 3–13% of the households and two wheelers at 40–50%.

The author also cites that since transport is a state subject in the Indian constitution, central government did not have a policy or investment plan for urban transport infrastructure until 2006. City governments attempted to solve transport crises as isolated road improvement projects but despite investments in road infrastructure and plans for land use and transport development, all cities continue to face the problem of congestion and traffic accidents, and all these problems are on the increase. For example in Delhi, the total funds allocated for the transport sector in 2002–2003 have doubled in 2006–2007.However, 80% of the funds have been allocated for road-widening schemes benefiting primarily the car and motorcycle users. In 2006–2007, 60% of the funds have been earmarked for public transport, which primarily includes a metro system. Cars are owned by less than 15% of the households in Delhi, therefore, an investment in car-friendly infrastructure is not meant for a majority of the commuters. The author further argues that as Delhi has grown as a city with multi-nucleated centres with mixed land-use patterns, formal and informal housing coexist, which in turn results in short journey lengths.This is one of the reasons why the demand for metro system in the city is low.

Metro system is capital-intensive (Rs. 2,000-3,000 million/km) and is not suitable to meet the mobility requirements of the majority of city residents. For the same price a 30–50 km bus network can be developed, including the use of modern buses which would benefit 30 to 50 times more people than a metro system. The cost of a single metro trip is at least Rs.

45 compared to Rs. 15 for a bus trip. Since car and personal two wheelers provide a flexible door-to-door service, it is not easy to attract these users to a metro even if they can afford the cost.Tickets have to be subsidised at least 10 to 15 times more heavily than a bus ticket for the same journey. And as all rail-based systems depend on buses, three wheelers and rickshaws as feeder modes to increase their catchment area, only long-distance travellers (with journeys of at least 15 km) are likely to use a feeder mode. Therefore, in order to realise the social benefits of metro systems the city structure has to change completely, which would result in a complete makeover of the transport system for four-wheelers as well.

Urban Transport in India-Beyond* of *“*Nano*”: Gupta S. , _Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore_ The author in this paper examines the event of introduction of Tata Nano, a low cost car, from both the positive and negative perspectives; the positive perspective being a transport revolution in the entire country by means of affordability of a private four-wheeler by increased number of households, and the negative being the chaos on the already congested roads, especially in metros like Delhi & Mumbai.Also as a competitive response to Tata Motors, several other auto manufacturers have also unveiled plans to introduce budget cars in the Indian market.

Given that the penetration of cars in India is about seven per 1,000 people (as compared to 550 per 1,000 in Germany), the potential size of the market is indeed enormous in a country of over a billion people.The author points out that the rapid urbanisation of the country’s population has important implications for urban transport, and if urban transport is not managed well it has the potential to choke cities and bring economic activity to a grinding halt. Delhi by itself, with 1.

4% of India’s population, accounts for more than 7% of all motor vehicles in the country (one consequence of this is heavy dependence on oil imports which were about 102 million tonnes in 2005, of which over a third was consumed by the transport sector alone).The author quotes the report of the Working Group for the 11th Five Year Plan on Urban Transport, constituted by the Planning Commission of the Government of India in 2006 and chaired by the Secretary, Urban Development, which stated in its review of government interventions on urban transport that, “By and large, the following investments have been made in the past few years in an attempt to improve transport: (1) construction of flyovers in a large number of cities; (2) widening of roads; and (3) construction of the Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) in Delhi. But the issue remains that the construction of flyovers and widening of roads have not produced the desired improvements in all locations. The construction of flyovers and widening of roads has, unfortunately, also been accompanied by the removal/reduction of pedestrian facilities. Considering that India has very high pedestrian mortality rates, this practice must be stopped immediately. The MRTS in Delhi is operating at about 20% of its projected capacity.

And focusing on he Delhi Metro, researchers at IIT Delhi have estimated that the metro system will be utilised at about 25% of its capacity even when fully built, leading them to conclude that “High capacity system does not necessarily generate high demand”. The author concludes his paper by saying that the current trajectory of urban transport needs urgent correction and while some steps have been initiated, much still remains to be done to ensure sustainable urban transport so vital for viable urban growth in India.Sample Taken Data available: information on vehicle ownership of Delhi residents (two-wheeler or four-wheeler, number of vehicles in the household, plans to purchase a vehicle in the near future) Methodology of data collection: primary (personal interviews & online questionnaires), secondary (Census reports & Economic Survey reports) Study period: December 2009 to February 2010Objectives of the Study To study the effect of introduction of Delhi Metro to the car buying behaviour of commuters Impact of Delhi Metro on private and other public modes of transport Forecasting of public transport infrastructure situation in the coming years using current data projections Objectives vis-a-vis findingsTo identify if the introduction of Delhi Metro has changed the car buying plans of resident commuters (hence reducing the inflow of new cars on Delhi roads) To identify if the introduction of Delhi Metro has changed the car usage pattern of car owners To identify if Delhi Metro has been effective in its goal of alleviating the burden of public transport on the city Variables that the study identifiesDemand for private vehicles, public transport infrastructure, traffic & mobility patterns, transport & land-use relation, transport policies, effectiveness of a Mass Rapid Transit System Methodology of the Study Data Survey: Census reports & Economic Survey reports, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) Annual reports Data Collection: information on vehicle ownership of Delhi residents (two-wheeler or four-wheeler, number of vehicles in the household, plans to purchase a vehicle in the near future) Key pointers to future researchUrban transport infrastructure planning, Delhi transport policy formulation, Statistical data on Delhi-NCR public and private traffic, development of an MRTS in any other city Limitations of the study The study does not take into account the inbound and outbound public and private traffic, i. e.

the non-resident traffic population The study is restricted to the time frame in which it is conducted, the degree of completion of various metro lines notwithstanding