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Efforts based on the understanding of the world began to be perceived by the human eye, and later it became increasingly curious to the micro or macro world. For example, Telescopes were made for very large objects and starting from magnifiers to microscopes a lot of tools were invented for microscopic objects. But when it started to investigate smaller particles that could not even be seen with electron microscopes, a new method was needed. Particle detectors and accelerators have emerged as the result of this need. Today, they not only help to understand the micro world, but also their use in many other areas is increasing day by day. A particle detector is a device that measures the energy, momentum, position, spin etc. of the particles. Although there are many types of particle detectors such as calorimeters, solid state detectors etc., in this work it will be focus on gaseous detectors and AC current transformers.
Particle detectors play important roles in the defence industry, imaging technology and medicine, however the most basic field of use is scientific experiments. In addition to being used for identification of subatomic particles, particle detectors are also used for beam diagnostics. Beam diagnostics involve measurements of many properties of a beam, such as its emittance, size, current and profile. Particle detectors generally used for the charged particles or charged beams. Because charged beams creates ionization inside the gas which allows us to identify the specifications of the beams furthermore they are ideal current sources which means we can have informations about the beams if we can measure the electric and magnetic fields created by them.
The AC Current Transformer is a type of sensor that produces an alternating current in its secondary winding proportional to the current in the primary section. The working principle depends on the basic law which is varying magnetic field induces current. Because of the operational logic of the transformers, the incoming signal is small and it needs an amplification circuit to measure the current.
Working principle of gaseous detectors depends on the ionization of gas molecules by the incoming particle, with resulting electrons and ions generating current to be measured. Broudly speaking, there are three types of gaseous detectors which are ionization chambers, proportional counters, Geiger-Müller tubes. Proportional chambers like Multi Wire Proportional Chamber and Delay Wire Chambers are still used in the extraction of the beam line such as SPS. Especially MWPC and DWC have been used many years in the proton-anti proton and heavy ion extraction line at CERN 1.
Particle detectors and accelerators are not cheap and easy-to-construct devices therefore detailed calculations and simulations before their building are crucial for researchers. These calculations can be time consuming as extensive numerical analysies need to be performed. That is why this work also contains results from the existing programs, new simulation program for beam diagnostic and a comparison measurement from actual devices.