Mechanism conditions and often dusty. Most of these

Mechanism of precisely determine the problemThe main problems underlying this research can be summarized as follows: 1.1 Reflection ProblemsThe use of solar panels in recent decades has become very important in the production of alternative energy for electric power. It is known that PV photovoltaic cells are covered with a layer of polished glass. This glass reflects all the incident sun’s rays instead of exploiting all the fallen power in producing the alternative energy. 1.2 The PV Cleaning ProblemsSaudi Arabia is characterized by extreme climatic conditions and often dusty. Most of these conditions directly affect the work of the solar panels and thus affect the reduction in the amount of clean energy produced by these panels, therefore requires the suspension of solar panels for work as well as expenses of large founds to clean them almost the year. As well as that these obstacles prevented the expansion of the construction and construction of large farms and fields of alternative energy and the exploitation of desert lands in the Kingdom.Therefore, this project provides a radical solution to the above constraints by producing a new transparent generation of nanomaterials coatings that addresses the above constraints as follows:Point 1.1 above deals with being non-reflective and absorbent to the full sun ray so that all the intensity of the sun’s rays on the solar panels turn into energy and this contributes directly and effectively to the performance and efficiency of solar panels.Furthermore, the second point 1.2 deals with the prevention of soil, dust, moisture, sand, bird residue, rain and other adhesions on the surface of the solar panels with high durability factor. Thus, the panels are self-cleaning, which contributes significantly to the performance of these panels and throughout the year showing great potential for its use in harsh environmental conditions. It also drastically solves the problems and obstacles that have become in the past without expanding the construction of giant projects for the solar panel farms in the Kingdom and the provision of large amounts of electricity production through gas stations and turbines.2 How to gather information about the problem and measurement tools?All the problems and obstacles experienced by all the solar panels shown in the previous section, the problems of reflection and cleaning problems of solar panels. This section shows a brief overview and the mechanism followed in this project which lead to the manufacture of the new generation of the smart nanotechnology coatings, considers all the extremely climatic conditions of the Kingdom.2.1 Computer: Computational models and intelligent algorithms are created to model and simulate chemical reactions after the selection of certain chemicals, polymers, non-polymer, Nano materials and their chemical ratios. As well as conducting Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for comparisons between similar elements by studying the physical and chemical properties and their compositions with the rest of the components. The generated data from the used simulation package (MATLAB/Simulink) contributes in determining the closest result cases to the ideal case, containing critical components that directly form the basis for manufacturing the smart coatings are proposed.2.2 Chemistry: Depending on the output of the modelling and simulation algorithms, the raw materials are prepared to introduce the prototype samples, including chemical, polymeric, non-polymer and Nano materials. Samll laboratory is prepared to conduct a number of chemical experiments, such as compounds preparation, chemical reactions and mixing applications to produce different samples on various substrates like aluminium, glass, ABS plastic and painted surfaces of the automobile parts. 2.3 Physics: All chemically prepared samples are tested and measured using modern measuring tools and devices to ensure that all sample models are prepared within standards and are suitable for their wider manufacture and marketing. The next section will include a comprehensive presentation of all the measuring tools, instruments and devices used to prepare and measure the sample models provided in this project. 3 Brief details of all measurement tools and devices including laboratory tools, manufacturing & measurement devices. 3.1 List of Computer Programming Tools and Software A. Computer PCs/laptop to install all software required and run modelling and simulation and analysing data.B. A multi-paradigm numerical computing environment, such as Mathworks MATLAB and its related packages.C. A graphical programming environment for modelling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamical systems, such as Mathworks Simulink.D. Software for studying, analyzing and visualizing data comes from spectrometer instrument to measure Ultraviolet light and intensity, such as SpectraWiz® Spectroscopy Software.E. Word processing application for preparing and writing reports, research results and papers, posters and document the work.F. Database Management System to store and manage data of experiments, materials, weather, and more.   3.2 A List of Basic Chemistry ApparatusSafety goggles and safety equipment, Beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks (AKA conical flasks), Florence flasks (AKA boiling flasks), Test tubes, tongs, and racks, Watch glasses, Crucibles, Funnels, Graduated cylinders, Volumetric flasks, Droppers, Pipettes, Burets, Ring stands, rings, and clamps, Tongs and forceps, Spatulas, Thermometers, Bunsen Burners, Balances, Ovens. 3.3 Instruments 3.3.1 THINKY NP-100 Nano PulveriserThe THINKY NP-100 Nano Pulveriser can breaks up any chemical powder or particles by using a mesh filter into nano size using impact fragmentation, particles in the 10-micron range are reduced to 100 nanometre sizes or less uses planetary revolution and rotation action to produce a centrifugal force on a 45° plane to create strong concentrated energy that increases collision, friction and shear force, combined with a chiller to provide temperature control.  3.3.2 Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopyAn infrared spectrum represents a fingerprint of all samples. Using the FT-IR spectroscopy to get the most important information, such as: identify unknown materials, determine the quality or consistency of a sample and determine the amount of components in a mixture.The sample analysis process including the following steps:- Infrared energy beam source.- The beam enters the interferometer where the “spectral encoding” takes place. The resulting interferogram signal then exits the interferometer.- The beam enters the sample compartment where it is transmitted through or reflected off ofthe surface of the sample, depending on the type of analysis being accomplished. – The beam finally passes to the detector for final measurement. – Using the Computer, Figure (1), The measured signal is digitized and sent to the computer where the Fourier transformation takes place. The final infrared spectrum is then presented to the user for interpretation and any further manipulation.Figure (1): The sample analysis process using the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopyTherefore, infrared spectroscopy can result in a positive identification (qualitative analysis) of every different kind of material. In addition, the size of the peaks in the spectrum is a direct indication of the amount of material present. With modern software algorithms, infrared is an excellent tool for quantitative analysis.3.3.3 Small Laboratory Chemical Reactor, Reaction Kettle, Reaction VesselThis device is widely and mainly used in the laboratory to mix chemical components and conduct chemical reactions, combination, separation and concentration.There is a filixbility for injunction different hot or cold liquids during the chemical reactions. This important device provide excellent mixing in the jacketed heating reactor under positive or negative pressure. The transparent glass structure can be helpful to monitor the complete reaction. 3.3.4 Digital auto haze degree and transparency test machineThis device helps to measure the transparent and semitransparent parallel level material for testing transmittance and haze degree. LED the transmittance and haze degree of transparent at the same time with USB interface to connect to PC to save data. Testing range: transmittance: 0-100.0%, Accuracy: transmittance: ?1% haze degree: when H?0.5%, 0.1%; when H>0.5%, 0.3%and Solid standard sample: 50mm×50mm.  3.3.5 VK-X250 3D Laser Scanning Confocal MicroscopeThe laser scanning microscope help for complete faster evaluations when developing new materials as its including a measurement function which can be used to evaluate the anti-wear performance of prototypes developed with different conditions and significantly accelerates the speed of evaluation.3.3.6 Spray Guns 1. Fuji Mini-Mite 4 Turbine Platinum Unit c/w T70 or T75 Spray Gun – PACKAGE DEAL.2. Nano Chrome Plating Paint Gun Double Nozzle 1.3 mm Spray Gun SAT1202.3. Badger Airbrushes Basic Spray Gun Set 250-2 Using the gun sprayers to reduce the waste generated during the mixing and reduce the waste of labor in the coating and painting process, to improve the work efficiency. Different lab samples requiring a different spray gun’s specifications as all samples prepared from different compounds (chemical, polymer, non-polymer and nano materials) and sprayed with different psi insure high-quality standards. 3.3.7 VK-X250 3D Laser Scanning Confocal MicroscopeThe laser scanning microscope help for complete faster evaluations when developing new materials as its including a measurement function which can be used to evaluate the anti-wear performance of prototypes developed with different conditions and significantly accelerates the speed of evaluation. 4 The assumptions or the proposed solutions to resolve the problemComputer plays a key role in finding solutions to the problems proposed in this project by designing intelligent algorithms that simulate and compare chemical raw materials and mixing ratios to form the basic compounds for the manufacture of transparent smart nanoparticles coatings.All algorithms take into consideration all the Kingdom experienced climatic factors as input variables of the algorithm and simulation programs. Figure 2 shows most of the factors considered in the design of smart algorithms for cause of dust accumulation.After that, the weight of the raw materials is measured and laboratory prepared and the materials needed to conduct the chemical reactions as well as the preparation of the nanoscale materials and compounds to the preparation of prototypes.All samples prepared are physically examined and measured using modern tools, equipment and devices listed in the previous sections to demonstrate the effectiveness of the manufactured models and compare them. 5 Testing methods and procedure for all samples and prototypesTo test the validity of the proposed solutions offered in this project and reached to the optimum results, the following tests will apply for all prepared samples:1) Nano-material measurements for all raw materials using THINKY NP-100 Nano Pulveriser2) Measuring the identify for all raw materials and samples, determine the quality or consistency of a sample and determine the amount of components in a mixture using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy3) Integrated solar absorbance and reflectance of the above from 300 – 2500 nm (VIS, UV and NIR) using Varian Cary 5000 UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophometer.4) measuring the transparency for all samples prepared in this project on standard substrate (50mm×50mm) using Digital auto haze degree and transparency test machine 5) Using VK-X250 3D Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope for all samples.Wind MovementIrradiation Air Po…TemperatureWind DirectionAir PressureSnowHumadityVolcanoDust StonesSoil and SandClayBacteriaCarbonIndustrial AreaGlass MaterialSandy AreaOrientationHightT… AngelFlat Surfacelongitude and latitudeCause of Dust AccumulationCause of Dust AccumulationCause of Dust AccumulationLocation and Installation Factors6) Other measurements include hardness, consistency, and cohesion of attractive for all samples.                 Figure 2: Most of the factors considered in the design of smart algorithms for cause of dust accumulation