Media that affects the basic choices of

Media affects almost all aspects of modern-day life and it is intrinsic in defining key social and cultural processes that affects the basic choices of society. At a time like this when technology is being innovated at an alarming speed and impinge upon society in general, the public needs to be informed about the benefits and risks that come with the new technologies. The change of our media environment brings about the need for social research. New trends in media development have a lot of consequences due to mobilization, increase in connectivity and differentiation. It has led for example to more active involvement in political affairs due to public information exposure (Shah, Kwak, and Holbert, 2001). Social media has also brought more complex challenges through an informed citizenship and the functioning of democracies (Lee, Choi, Kim, and Kim, 2014).News thus in the long can be filtered and interpreted as per the consumers views and opinions. This leads to people choosing a partisan ideology (Iyengar and Hahn, 2009). Political information is very crucial in a media setting and can be obtained by seeking out the information or accidentally encounter it with no intention of doing so (Downs, 1957). This is also called incidental exposure. The relationship between the two has been experimented before. The incidental exposure can be conceived to limit consequences of selective exposure to information. Those who thus don’t follow or watch news may accidentally stumble on the news information. Those who read news only from media outlets with their own political inclination will thus stumble on incidental exposure. The other factor that affects incidental exposure to news is the online media environment. A study on the predictors of incidental exposure to news online was experimented. Both a laboratory test and a public opinion survey is conducted in this case.  The project first tested a casual relationship between incidental exposure and information gain online. It also employed a national probability survey to explore predictors of incidental exposure online in the actual place that social media takes place. Information filtering is vital in the online media environment in individual information gain which leads to key societal consequences (Bimber, 2004). Incidental exposure have positive effects on learning about the political information in the online media environment. The effects of initial incidental exposure on information gain will ne mediated by actual exposure to the news through the gateway effect in the online media environment.   The first study that was conducted specified the OLS regression models that predict the recognition and the recalls of the news events. The relusts were later on tabulated to shopw their summaries. The results were to depict the evidence on the fact that incidental news exposure is responsible for facilitationg the recognition and the recall of news events that have been covered in the stories.The people who wre participariong in the research in the incidental participation group in particular, accounted for a significant high number of stories than individuals who were in a control group. The same individuals were discovered to recall more stories.The research continued to find amny findings some of them being that, the incidental exposure to news is responsible for casual effects on how people recognize and recall any information that has been covered in the nbews stories on ytheir own.The second part of the study was to ltest the mediation hypothesis. The study, was used to analyze the 95% confidence interval that can be associated witgh the indirect effect of the actual exposure to news based on an individual,s recall of the news. The research was to find, if the confidence interval did noiot include zero, it woulkd be evidencve of significant mediation effects of the actual exposure (Baron & Kenny, 1986).The results found out that, there was a vanish in the incidental exposure immediately the actual exposure was introduced. The research further discovered that the full mediation effects of the actual exposure in a test of mediation. This was an indication of subsequent exposure which mediated the relatioinship in as much as the mediating effects were niot so significanyt for recognition purposes.The other study was on testing the hypotheses. The research discovered that most of the variables of individual characteristics were not so related to incidental exposure to the news found online (Downs, 1957; Krugman & Hartley, 1970). Regarding some of the politiocal characteristics, it was only found that discussion was significant in the process of predicting the incidental exposure. Incidental exposure increased in the instances where there was a high rate of participation on the discuussions. It was discovered too that the political interest was not related to the incidental exposure. Only the internet was fdound to be able to predict the incidental expoisure to the news that was found online.According to the authors, the SNS network was not of any significance to incidental exposure that wre responsible for the control of the other variuables. The SNS networks was discovered to be responsible for the prediction of incidental exposure to the news. It was also discovered that the increase in diversity in someones involvement in the social media, increased the incidental encounter of news online.DISCUSIIONThe article was set to find the aspects of the incedebntal exposure of news or even the public affairs online. Thius invoilved the consequences that are involved wioth it and the ciorrelation ofvthe two. The re were experiments that were conducted to investigate the casual effects and there was even a survey that was conducted nationwide on the proobabuility of incidental.The authors discovered some of the ways people get exposed to the incidental news. And It was disciovered that discussion or politics or even the social media among other issues was responsible.They faced limitation on the fact that the studies could not be able  to offer the required answers regarding whether incidental exposure will increase or even decrease or even just stay same.The study could not simulate completely the diverse experiences of the ibncedental exposure encountered onl;ine on platforms such as the social media. The author was also keen to oultline that there was need to find answers regarding the effects of the media and even the individual learning to democracy. The findings that the author discovered, were so as there may be an encouragement on further investigation regarding incidental exposure to the news and even the influences on learning about the public affairs in the ever changing media enviroinment.I loved the research personally, since there was great discussion of how the incidental exposure occurs and how it affects us. I was thrilled by how the research was conducted, especially the questionnaire. It contained questions that required great reasoning and gave a chance for an honest explanation of thoughts. It was a great research overally.REFERENCESR.M. Baron, D.A. KennyThe moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerationsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6) (1986), pp. 1173-1182H.E. Krugman, E.L. HartleyPassive learning from televisionPublic Opinion Quarterly, 34 (2) (1970), pp. 184-190, 10.1086/267788