Principles of management APPLIED RESEARCH Pleasant Valley Police Department Thomas Donnelly Karl Hartenstine Park University Internet Campus A course paper presented to the School for Arts and Sciences and Distance Learning in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Baccalaureate Principles of Management Park University November, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION4 BODY6 Diversity Management6 Ethical, Social, and Legal Responsibilities8 International Business8 General Planning & Strategic Planning9 Organizing Work and Synergism10
Organization Structure and Chart11 Work Team Utilization12 Staffing12 Employee Training and Development12 Motivating Employees14 Leadership and Management14 Managing Conflict and Stress15 Managing Change15 Controlling16 Appraising and Rewarding16 Operations Management and Plans17 Operations Control17 CONCLUSION18 REFERENCES19 INTRODUCTION To most driving down interstate 35 and Interstate 435, Pleasant Valley Missouri could easily be mistaken for a speck on the map if not for the fifty foot QuikTrip sign that announces to passing travelers of the small town’s existence.
Approximately 3,600 people call Pleasant Valley home; though even long time Clay County residents still utter the phrase “Pleasant Valley?… Where is that? ” [plausibly] due to the fact that Pleasant Valley is approximately one square mile in overall size. Pleasant Valley Missouri was founded as a “Village” in 1945 on the outskirts of Liberty Missouri. From humble beginnings as a small farming community Pleasant Valley grew and continued to thrive as families began to settle in, thus creating a need for a school to teach our children and a growing need for law enforcement.
On July 21st, 1961 an ordinance was passed creating a bond for $70,000 to build a village hall on the corner of Sobbie Road and Pleasant Valley Road; thus was the beginnings of the Pleasant Valley Police Department. Though the village lacked most of the usual civil services taken for granted by other cities at the time such as a fire department, street services, and sewers; she did have an outdated (even for the time) 1930’s WPA water system that supplied fresh water to her residents. The city flourished because of the dedication of her residents to create a community that others would be proud to call home.
With no public works department at the time winter was a harsh mistress. With the hard work and dedication of residents like Ben Linhart, Dave Kane, and Bob Lehman shoveling sand out of the dump truck owned by Lehman; the city operated year round until the creation of the public works department. These men knew what it took to be part of a community. When the Police Department was founded in [insert date here], there were three officers Will Carder, Bill Francis, and Bob Wheeler along with Jess Gabbert being elected as the first Marshall.
Currently the police department has a staff of 16 officers and dispatchers led by the 30 year veteran Police Chief Mark Dumolt. Chief Dumolt is a retired senior commander of the Kansas City Police Department [where he holds the rank of Major] and holds a BA in Administration of Justice and an MSA in Administration from Central Missouri University. In addition, the chief is also an active duty veteran of the Marine Corps, veteran of the Army Reserve, President of the Clay County Drug Task Force, Investigative Squad Board of Directors, and serves as a Regional Vice President of the Missouri Police Chief’s Association.
With such impressive credentials one would assume that Chief Dumolt is the epitome of leadership. TRANSITION PARAGRAPH The Oxford dictionary defines Leadership as, “noun. The action of leading a group of people or an organization; the state or position of being a leader; [treated as singular or plural] the leaders of an organization, country, etc. ” With such a small community like Pleasant Valley, leadership is crucial when trying to grow and expand. There needs to be a clear definitive vision on where progress should be in the near future.
Because the city of Pleasant Valley is in fact so small, there is only a handful of local businesses that help sustain the city’s population and encourage growth. In fact the city makes most of her revenue off the Police Department’s citations. With an analysis of their interpersonal skills, management strategies, and various management principles I hope to paint a picture of how smaller cities are beginning to show their business savvy to stimulate growth.
Through focusing my analysis on the local Police Department I hope to show what methods make them successful at being such a significant source of revenue to such a small town; thus becoming a new entity I like to call “Small Town Inc. ” while illustrating what kind of impact they pose on their community. BODY Utilizing modern day management practices small towns of limited resource, like Pleasant Valley Missouri, can evolve into a bustling city; specifically with a vigilant police department.
The question is can effective management, aggressive policing policies, and quality interpersonal relationships be achieved without negatively affecting their revenue contribution to the city. For without the necessary revenue generated, the small community would be forced to integrate commercial business to influence growth. While maintaining the forgotten feel of a tight knit community, where [at the risk of sounding cliche] everyone knows one another, and doors can remained unlocked at night; while weakening the dependency on the need for commercial business to sustain/stimulate the local economy.
Diversity Management Diversity as defined by the Oxford dictionary is “[noun] 1) a range of many people or things that are different from each other; 2) the quality or fact of including a range of many people or things. ” With a police force of twelve officers and dispatchers there is very little that sets each individual apart from the other. Currently there are two female officers within the department; both act as court officers. When asked why there seems to be a lack of diversity among his officers, Chief Dumolt’s response xplained how over the last 5 years there has been an rise in female and minority cadets joining the police academy, though sadly our city “…has not had the privilege to swear in her first female/minority officer yet…” (Dumolt, 2011). While there seems to be a lack of diversity among officer’s gender and race; there is abundance among the other aspects within the department. Diversity is not limited to an individual’s sex or race; more like employing a multitude of different types of individuals that can perform a task.
For example, officers rotate duties such as code enforcement, traffic duty, and night shifts on a monthly basis to keep a well-rounded knowledge of all duties expected by all personnel. Diversity can play an intricate role of the public’s view of law enforcement; especially in smaller communities. In 2006, Alexa Kasdan wrote a paper discussing possible strategies and tools to implement to increase diversity among law enforcement agencies for the Kennedy School of Government’s [Harvard University] Executive Session on Human Rights Commissions and Criminal Justice to.
In which Kasdan postulates diversity is important to agencies “Because of the visibility of police officers in American communities, a diverse agency publicly displays its commitment to equal treatment in law enforcement. Diversity in the ranks can also help make police personnel more sensitive to the use of racially or ethnically offensive language in casual as well as public conversations. ” (Kasdan,2006) Seemingly obvious to some, many do not realize the importance of having a positive public face; and officers are no exception.
The public perception of law enforcement directly effects the ability to maintain authority; especially in hostile situations. Ethical, Social, and Legal Responsibilities We are all familiar with the universal phrase “To Protect and Serve” but what do the terms “Protect” and “Serve” encapsulate? I propose it stands for the commitment each officer makes and the expectations included with wearing the badge. Social responsibility is an ideological belief of an organization or individual’s obligation to act on the benefit of the overall society.
When Pleasant Valley police Captain Elder was asked what he felt the responsibilities of his position are? The 20 year veteran of the force responded proudly “Simply put an officer’s responsibilities lie first with the enforcement of any laws of this country, second is the protection and welfare of the public, and finally the fortitude to interpret the law without bias. ”(Capt. Elder, personal communication, November 18, 2011). One can only ponder the burden of having to weigh a person’s fate on a situational basis; so can an officer do this day in and out without sacrificing their mental health? It takes its toll on everyone differently, but we know the risks, when we affix our badges we proudly become something bigger than ourselves. ” For the remainder of the night the captain’s answer rang throughout my mind. Redefining responsibility within myself; Responsibility is the willingness to put personal gain aside and act accordingly. International Business While Pleasant Valley Missouri is not a hub for international trade; there are companies that reside within her borders that do import and export internationally.
Companies such as Wal-Mart, R & L Carriers, and Peterson Mechanical do rely on the international market. Now you may be asking yourself “yea, so what? ” To which my only reply is…There are only so many things that could possibly be perceived as an international relationship with the Police department. None of which I have been able to locate any solid sources for; Pleasant Valley Police Department officials declined to comment on their international business practices. Which is why I call it my theory and do not to declare is a belief. Try and follow with me and see if you come to the same conclusion.
There may be a small link to an over-seas company that could provide services like discounted supplies for both the officers and the day to day practices of the department; but sadly no proof. Another possibility could be their policies regarding Human Rights and Ethics…but alas no supporting evidence. Seems odd to me I could not get a comment? But I was not going to push the issue. General Planning and Strategic Planning Pleasant Valley Missouri municipal code states a very specific description allotting the complete control of the police force to be under the command of the acting Chief of Police.
As such, the only person you has higher authority than the Chief is the elected Mayor, currently David Slater. Because of the guidelines outlined within the city’s municipal code; Mayor Slater has the ability to pardon any offenses made toward the city. When the Mayor was interviewed, the question of how many times has he pardoned an offense arose. The Mayor confidently responded, “As long as I have been Mayor; I believe I have pardoned 4 individuals for various offenses. Generally, only if I feel the grievance(s) was just a heated argument taken out of context.
Officers can occasionally get a little defensive when their authority is questioned by an informed but disgruntled citizen. ”(Slater, 2011) The Pleasant Valley Missouri municipal code mandates that the Chief of Police’s duties are, “The Chief of Police shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Police Department and shall be responsible for all functions and operations required of the department by Statute or ordinance. The Chief of Police shall set policy, administer training, maintain records, submit and maintain budget requirements, and direct implementation of all administrative functions of the department.
The Chief of Police shall be the keeper of the City Jail and shall have custody of all persons incarcerated therein. The Chief of Police shall keep such records and make such reports concerning the activities of the Police Department as may be required by Statute or by ordinance, Mayor or Board of Aldermen. The Chief of Police shall be responsible for the performance of the Police Department and all of its functions, and all persons who are members of the Police Department shall serve subject to the orders of the Chief of Police. (Ord.
No. 2708 §1, 8-1-05)” (Sullivan, 2011) Which means that Chief Dumolt is the top-level manager in regards to the police force; the truth being his decisions are second only to the Mayor’s judgment calls. Organizing Work and Synergism Operations are the processes within organizations that turn inputs like labor, capital, materials, and energy into outputs such as services and goods. In order for Pleasant Valley Police Department to accomplish this they have a number of procedures in place that outline how certain things are to be handled.
For example, Pleasant Valley uses a process called crime mapping, the plotting of crimes that have already occurred to visually determine trends; which in turn can be used for crime prevention. With this tool the police department is able to create a detailed list of all types of interaction and two times each month Chief Dumolt is required to appear in front of the city council and board of aldermen to present the data of his department’s performance. “I have to adhere to a chain of authority just the same as my officers. (Dumolt, 2011) By organizing the department and allowing communication, a line of authority established which promotes a sense of authority within the ranks. Organization Structure and Chart Pleasant Valley Police department follows a standard functional departmentalization structure as outlined below; [pic] This organizational structure allows for a precise chain of authority within the department with the chief of police being the top authority figure. Work Team Utilization
There is an unwritten rule that states officers are brothers/sisters and due to this there is a significant amount of cohesion displayed between law enforcement; regardless of the jurisdiction. Because of this most officers feel they are never alone. It is comparable to the feeling soldiers get when in combat and they know there is always someone watching their backs. It is quite impressive really when you think about it. When you are in a hostile situation you need to feel that no matter “…someone has your back at all times” (Dumolt, 2011) Staffing The staffing of the police department is the inherit responsibility of he Police Chief Dumolt; and as such he is also solely in charge of the ranking system of his officers. The only thing that must be authorized through his superiors [Mayor Slater and the Board of Alderman] is if the rank change affects the rate of pay to the officer. The standard procedure for staffing is the Chief informs his administrative assistant to post a job opening on the city’s web page alerting to job openings with the department. When a candidate applies for the position the must show state certifications and training history before moving forward to the interview stage.
With this style of checks and balance system the department is safeguarded against unqualified individuals from diminishing the image of the department; both publicly and legally. Employee Training and Development Due to state guidelines of what is required of a police officer, Pleasant Valley Police Department only handles minimal training of its police officers; aside from the occasionally heads up notices regarding upcoming law changes and training courses offered as continuing education credits. Each officer has a set of requirements that must be met before the city will even accept an application for service.
For example, all officers are mandated to have a current Police Officer Standards and Training (POST) certification. The POST certification requires that a candidate is 21 or older, citizen of the US (or repatriated/naturalized citizen), Holds a high school degree/GED/or Home schooled, Has never been convicted of a crime by any agency that could result in imprisonment both federal and state, must not have been convicted of sufficient misdemeanors to establish a pattern of disregard for the law, must read and write at an equal level as they’re education, and must possess good moral character.
POST requirements are mandated by the state in which the commission resides. Missouri Revised Statute Chapter 560 sets the overall POST requirements of any law enforcement officer. In fact, you cannot hold a position in the state if you have not completed the POST certification. The statute goes further and states that “…every officer must complete 470-600 hours of basic training before becoming eligible for licensure. ” (POST, 2011) The statutes are in place to help ensure that only qualified candidates of the highest integrity are allowed to serve as an officer within this great state.
Though the statutes are meant to generalize so each municipality must define a narrower scope to what is expected of their officers. After all you cannot expect to maintain credibility in the court system if your officers are testifying against a murderer only to have the case dismissed due to credibility issues. To have the finest you must demand the best. Motivating Employees It is the responsibility of the Police Chief to effectively motivate his officers as a department by setting policy and setting the standard that he expects of his officers.
While the Chief is not the only person that is expected to provide motivation he is possibly the most important. “As a Marine I was taught to lead by example. So as long as I take charge and motivate myself others will see it and model my behavior” (Dumolt, 2011) But who leads the chief? Mayor Slater of course; “Motivating a police department is not an easy task due to varying reasons…” (Slater, 2011) For the officers, it has as to do with why they have chosen such a dangerous and demanding career. “[Which is why] we have accountability programs in place for members of the department; including the Chief. (Slater, 2011) Accountability programs help to facilitate all members of the department are working towards the same goals and no officer is doing more than another. This is necessary in order to make sure all officers are performing to the standards of their coworkers and to the standards the agency. Leadership and Management The leadership strategies displayed by Chief Dumolt are impressive to say the least. The Chief understands that with evolving/new policing concepts we should assume the need for better and different leadership throughout the organizational level.
It is inherently the Chief’s responsibility to lead his officers and to monitor the progress of the objectives that are set forth by him and his superiors. With the nature of the law enforcement being to constantly be alone or with a small group trying to remain an active presence in the community; it is crucial that the individual officer effectively manages their time while away from the chief’s eyesight. Managing Conflict and Stress “Each day, police officers are called upon to handle a wide variety of situations, any one of which potentially might result in an officer or citizen suffering serious bodily injury or death. (U. S. DOJ, 2003) And because no two situations are the same, officers are forced to utilize their past experiences to handle the current situation. Because Pleasant Valley Missouri is so small in size the officers are diligent in how they patrol the streets. This increases the chance for situations of unwarranted conflict. So policies, like being required to call for backup in cases where there is more than one subject involved, are enacted to help eliminate the occurrence of claims against the city for unnecessary violence against the public.
These same policies help prevent stress for the officers too by giving them the knowledge of how to handle potentially dangerous situations themselves by internally training them to expect resistance and violence. If you expect violence during each situation and take the time to learn how to handle it; then you will not be caught off guard when it happens. Managing Change The world is a constantly evolving entity. Every day we experience changes in all aspects of our lives; be it from weather, season, technology, and countless other factors.
Pleasant Valley Police Department is no different, they have technological/environmental/internal changes that affect the way they conduct business as well. For example, department personnel must be prepared to use new equipment such as the implementation of tablets as portable devices to record incident reports. Along with having knowledge of new/revised local, state, and federal laws to properly enforce. As for the internal changes expected could be policy changes, budget adjustments, and personnel changes with the department. Controlling A standard is “a value used as a point of reference for comparing other values. (Rue & Byars, 2008) And every officer is expected to abide to a higher standard on and off duty than the people they are sworn to protect. By that I mean regular performance evaluations are conducted to monitor and control the effectiveness of each individual within the department. After the results are compiled, feedback is supplied to the individual, so as to promote a sense of accountability. The awareness is known to have a direct influence on improved performance during the next performance review. The most negative thing is when a desired standard is expressed by the council, aldermen, and chief but not enforced.
These deviations can lead to a false perception of authority; and there can be no doubt when an order is issued from above. Once a decision is made there must be no deviation to carrying it out, otherwise disciplinary actions would be issued. Appraising and Rewarding Every employee wants to feel like they are being rewarded for the work they do and companies want to sustain positive results from the individuals. One example of facilitating constant improvements in worker performance is companies that implement a performance appraisal process; like a point system that accumulates with every objective met before the deadline.
And depending on the tier level [point balance] you reside within when redeeming there is a selection of extrinsic rewards available. While there are many different forms of performance based reward programs, they are entirely centered on the results of an appraisal system; like routine performance evaluations or special incidents like customer praise or exemplary daily production. Pleasant Valley Police Department has to satisfy both state regulated performance reviews and locally [City ordinance] regulated evaluations of all officers.
While I was not able to reach anyone within the department for a more detailed compliment to verify specific examples of reward programs; there are numerous companies that reward law enforcement specifically with perks like heavily discounted beverage purchases from QuikTrip. Operations Management and Plans If operations transform input into output, operations management in the application of management concepts and principles to the unit that produces the goods or services rendered. To achieve this, operations planning is used to design the systems that produce goods or services from day to day operations within an organization.
Pleasant Valley Police Department utilizes this planning process by scheduling specific patrol times around peak hours of crime in the locations determined through crime mapping. Along with the use of specialized labor and emergency operations planning these combine to produce a network of local, state, and federal agencies to request assistance from if in an overwhelming situation. Operations Control Operations Control systems are designed to direct the flow of daily activities that way quality, which is a large contributor to high operational costs within an organization, can be monitored and controlled to ensure positive results.
Pleasant Valley Police Department uses operational control systems, such as traffic lights and other road signs to control and direct the flow of traffic among the city. For internal asset control there are procedures and systems that monitor the assignment of equipment that is not directly owned by the officers; like laptops and badges for example. These processes ensure city property is properly used and controlled. CONCLUSION
While this analysis is just a brief summary of general management principles that are utilized by agencies like Pleasant Valley Missouri Police Department to increase productivity, ensure synergy, and provide a safe society to live in. Through my research I have gained a perspective of Law enforcement that I only slightly understood before the beginning of this paper. I knew there were styles of management used in law enforcement; but now I can see there is not a significant difference in the management skills between a company and an organization like law enforcement. Earlier I said I anted to show you how these skills are used to create such a high revenue for the city income. Throughout each section I have correlated the relevant information I could find and expanded on them with my personal and professional opinions. My goal was to show you how my “Small Town Inc. ” theory related to a police department. I am sure you thought at some point “this guy thinks a policing agency is like a company? ” Well you see my data. I have shown you how corporate management is applied through the adaptation of control systems in place for emergency situations, staffing policies that outline what it takes to become a certified officer.
In conclusion I would like to state that when civic agencies use similar management practices as multi-national corporations; they are essentially creating a broader scope for the organization. Not only are they enforcing the law, providing a time honored service, and putting their lives on the line to safeguard our freedoms; their increasing city revenue exponentially using a minuscule amount of resources efficiently and producing the work of larger cities in the process. Interesting thought…I would how well the Police Department in a community named Synergy operates?
REFERENCES Text references: Rue, L. W. , & Byars, L. L. (2008). Management, skills and application. (13th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Internet reference: Kasdan, A. K. (2006). Increasing diversity in police departments: Strategies and tools for human rights commissions and others [Online]. Retrieved November 1, 2011 from the World Wide Web: http://www. hrccj. org/pdfs/increasing_police_diversity. pdf Missouri Department of Public Safety, (2011). Chapter 590: Peace officers, selection, training and discipline. Retrieved from Missouri Government website: http://www. oga. mo. gov/statutes/chapters/chap590. htm Sullivan Quick Codes Online. (2011). Pleasant valley missouri municipal codes. [Online]. Sullivan Publications. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://codes. sullivanpublications. com/codes-slp/ U. S. Department of Justice. (2003). Principles of Good Policing: Avoiding… [Online] Retrieved from U. S. Department of Justice website: http://www. justice. gov/crs/pubs/principlesofgoodpolicingfinal092003. pdf Zhao, D. J. , & Thurman, D. Q. (2006, July 28). Strategic planning in law enforcement agencies. [Online].
Retrieved November 1, 2011 from the World Wide Web: http://www. cops. usdoj. gov/files/ric/Publications/zhao. pdf Personal interview or contact reference: Dumolt, M. (2011, November 18). Pleasant Valley Missouri Police Chief, Interview by T. Donnelly [Personal Interview]. Personal communication. Elder, J. (2011, November 18). Pleasant Valley Missouri Police Captain, Interview by T. Donnelly [Personal Interview]. Personal communication. Slater, D. (2011, November 5). Pleasant Valley Missouri Mayor, Interview by T. Donnelly [Personal Interview]. Personal communication.