Micropropagation of Garlic Essay

Garlic (Allium sativum L. ) is one of the most important bulb crops grown and widely used as a spice or a condiment throughout India. The genus Allium is a diverse taxon comprising of nearly 500 species and belonging to family Alliaceae. Herbalists worldwide consider Garlic as one of the most important herbal medicines. It has been used both as food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years.

Organic Garlic has an acrid, warm taste, and a disagreeable, pungent odor.Its antiseptic properties for healing wounds to acting as an inhibitor of diseases, have been proven and research into garlic’s value continues till date. It contains a collection of sulfur and selenium aroma compounds which protect the plant from predators as well as soil-born organisms. Most of the medicinal effects of garlic are referable to a sulphur compound known as allicin. The intact garlic clove does not contain allicin but rather its precursor, the non protein amino acid alliin. Alliin is converted to allicin, pyruvate and ammomia by the enzyme alliinase.Garlic contains enzymes, vitamin Bs, flavonoids and certain minerals, and that it is a good source of antioxidants; protein; minerals like calcium, copper, iron, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and selenium; as well as vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6 and vitamin C.

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The planting differs from region to region. In Gujarat, planting of Garlic is done during October-November. In Maharashtra, M. P. , Karnataka ; A. P.

, it is planted from August to October and in northern part of India September to November.As per Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) record for 2008-09 India ranks second in area (1. 71 lakh hectares ) and production “(5. 93 lakh tons) of garlic, next to China. Haryana accounts for 11,000 metric tonnes of production with a yield of 12. 50 tons/ha (NHRDF), NASHIK, 2009). Over last 25 years the production of garlic has increased from 2. 16 to 5.

93 lakh tons. G-282 is early-maturing cultivar. Harvesting at the stage when tops have fallen over gives good quality bulbs. Bulbs are taken out along with tops and windrowed gathering several rows in each row for curing.G-282 was developed by mass selection technique from local collection obtained from Tamil Nadu in 1990. It was released in 1999 for growing all over the country but has performed well in northern and central part of india.

The bulb consists of 15-16 cloves,is creamy white in colour and is bigger in size having a diameter of 5-6 cm. The variety has gained wide popularity in garlic growing areas such as Haryana , Gujrat, Rajasthan and Uttar Pardesh . It is suitable for export and its yield ranges between 175-200 q/ha. HG-17 bulbs are white and medium sized having 28-32 cloves per bulb.

It yields about 100-125 q/ha.This variety is tolerant to purple blotch disease. Commercial varieties of garlic are vegetatively propagated because of sexual sterility “(Novak,1975). The planting rate of cloves of garlic under the cost of production. Traditional vegetative propagation has main disadvantage :a low coefficient of multiplication (Nagakubo et al.

, 1993). This multiplication rate need to be enhanced. One approach could be in vivo techniques and other approach to achieve this through the development of efficient protocol for regeneration of plants under in vitro condition so as to drive maximum benefits per unit cultivated area.